Flashcards in 7 Quality Tools Deck (16):

1

## Kaoru Ishikawa

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- Developed the seven basic visual tools of quality so that the average person could analyze and interpret data

- “95% of a company’s problems can be solved using these 7 tools”

2

## 7 quality tools

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- ishikawa diagram

- check sheet

- control chart

- histogram

- pareto chart

- scatter diagram

- flow chart

3

## ishikawa diagram

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- Fishbone diagram, cause-and-effect diagram

- Sometimes referred to as a 4M analysis (man, machinery, material, method)

- Identifies many possible causes for an effect or problem and sorts ideas into useful categories

4

## check sheet

### a structured, prepared form for collecting and analyzing data; a generic tool that can be adapted for a wide variety of purposes

5

## control chart

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- graphs used to study how a process changes over time

- monitors your chosen process and alerts you when there exists an "out of control" condition

6

## histogram

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- the most commonly used graph for showing frequency distributions, or how often each different value in a set of data occurs

- provide easiest way to evaluate distribution of data

- no gaps (shows # ranges)

- suggest the nature and possible improvements for physical mechanisms at work in progress

7

## pareto chart

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- shows on a bar graph which factors are more significant

- used to identify and prioritize problems to be solved

- actually histograms aided by the 80/20 rule

- helps an organization know how to utilize resources

8

## scatter diagram

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- graphs pairs of numerical data, one variable on each axis, to look for a relationship

- these relationships can be used to recognize indicator variables in organizations

9

## flow chart

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- aka stratification

- a flow chart is a visual representation of a process. seeing it visually makes identifying both inefficient and potential improvements easier

- a technique that separates data gathered from a variety of sources so that patterns can be seen

10

## Fishbone diagram process

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- define problem : be specific

- choose categories

- brainstorm possible causes

- 5 why analysis - really want to find root causes

- investigate - now that youve come up with possible causes, it's time to gather data to confirm which causes are real or not

11

## an "out of control" condition in a control chart

### this means that the process has changed from "normal" as defined by the process itself

12

## UCL and LCL for control charts

### calculated as 3 standard deviation from the mean with the standard deviation being determined by the current process

13

## an "in control" process can be..

### can be producing defective product due to the fact that the spec limits which define requirements are independent and unrelated to the actual process capability

14

## Nelsons 8 rules for control charts

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- one point is more than 3 stdv from mean

- 9 or more points in a row are on same side as mean

- 6 or more points in a row are continually increasing or decreasing

- 14 or more points in a row alternate direction

- 2 or 3 out of 3 points in a row are more than 2 stdv from mean in same direction

- 4 or 5 out of 5 points in a row are more than 1 stdv from mean in same direction

- 15 points in a row are all within 1 stdv of the mean on either side

- 8 points in a row exist within 1 stdv of the mean and the points are in both directions of mean

15

## constructing a pareto chart

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- first, information must be selected based on types of classifications of defects that occur as a result of process

- data must be collected and classified into categories

- then a histogram or frequency chart is constructed showing # of occurences

16