Religion, Peace, and Conflict Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Religion, Peace, and Conflict Deck (48)
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1
Q

What are some instances of violence in the Old Testament?

A

Cain murders his brother Abel out of jealousy and anger. God punishes him
God orders wars fought by the Israelites to claim or protect land God promised them. The wars aim to seek ultimate peace
God destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah, two sinful cities
God killed most of the world as they were sinful in The Flood

2
Q

What were Jesus’ teachings and actions on violence?

A

In the Sermon on the Mount he says the peacemakers are blessed and to turn the other cheek to violence
When finding money changers and traders in the temple in Jerusalem he reacted violently, an example of righteous anger

3
Q

What may be the role of Christians in violent conflicts?

A

Some may work in the armed forces, saying they are helping bring peace, protect civilians, and challenge evil
Some may act as chaplains, offering religious guidance to others
Some pacifists may work as doctors and nurses in charities to help the injured

4
Q

What are Christian attitudes on getting involved with politics?

A

Some say that authorities are appointed by God so should be respected and trusted. Paul the apostle believed that Roman authorities were God’s servants so believers should submit to them.
Some say preaching the Gospel should be a Christian’s focus, not politics.
The Plymouth Brethren and most Amish people do not vote.
Others say there is a moral obligation to be involved, in order to speak up against injustice and elect leaders that share Christian values.

5
Q

What is terrorism?

A

The illegal use of violence to cause fear and intimidation for political aims

6
Q

Why may people get involved in terrorism?

A

If they feel they have no alternative to achieve change
If they believe it is an appropriate response to their situation, such as Zionist groups in the 1930s
If they have been marginalised and feel their culture or freedoms are being attacked
If they have been radicalised

7
Q

What is CONTEST?

A

The British strategy to counter international terrorism and extremism, involving responses to help tackle radicalisation. One way is by encouraging schools to promote British values.

8
Q

What are different Christian attitudes to terrorism and its causes?

A

The Catholic Church says it is never justifiable and that an act of just war is acceptable as a final resort to preserve innocent life against terrorism.
The CofE also opposes it and accepts lethal force as a last resort against terrorists. In its 2005 report Facing the Challenge of Terrorism it said the CofE should promote greater understanding, reconciliation and respect, especially between faiths. They say stronger communities will help combat some of terrorism’s causes.

9
Q

What was the IRA?

A

The Irish Republican Army, a terrorist organisation that sprang up in the Troubles as a response to discrimination against Catholics in Northern Ireland. They used acts of violence and terror against Protestants, including the police and the British army. Over 3,500 people died in the Troubles until 1998, when the Good Friday Agreement was signed, accompanied by a ceasefire.

10
Q

What is just war theory?

A

A theory developed by St. Thomas Aquinas and the Catholic Church that aims to make war justifiable and acceptable by Christians. There are three parts: Jus ad bellum (whether it is right to go to war), Jus in bello (actions taken in war), and Jus post bellum (actions taken after war).

11
Q

What are some Jus ad bellum criteria?

A

The war must be started by the proper authority e.g. the government
The reason to go to war must be just e.g. to protect a group of people
Everything must be dome to make sure good, not evil, results from the war

12
Q

What are some Jus in bello criteria?

A

Civilians should not be harmed
Appropriate force only should be used
Internationally agreed conventions regulating war must be obeyed

13
Q

What are some Jus post bellum criteria?

A

Punishing war criminals

Helping retrain police and military in a defeated country where bad government has been defeated

14
Q

What are the three elements Holy Wars tend to have?

A

The achievement of a religious goal
The authorisation of a religious leader e.g. the Pope
The promise of a spiritual reward for those who take part e.g. that they will go to heaven

15
Q

What are some aims a Holy War could have?

A

Claiming land for a religion
Spreading of the faith
Defence of religious believers

16
Q

What were the Crusades?

A

A historical Holy War. They were an attempt by Christians to reclaim the Holy Land of Jerusalem from Muslims. Some were called by Popes, with spiritual rewards promised. For example, in the First Crusade Pope Urban II promised knights forgiveness for sins if Jerusalem was won back.

17
Q

Why do some say the invasion of Iraq in 2003 was a Holy War? Why do others disagree?

A

President Bush often used Bible quotes in briefings to support the war, suggesting that it was God’s will. He claimed he had been told by God to invade Iraq as part of a God-given mission to bring peace to the Middle East. Many fundamentalist Christians supported him.
There were concerns that this attitude could be used to suggest that the war was an act of aggression by a Christian nation to overthrow an Islamic one, which could fuel conflict.

18
Q

What are mainstream Christian attitudes to conventional warfare?

A

War is not easily justified, and needs to meet all just war criteria to take place. War may be necessary to achieve peace and maintain justice; St Augustine said that wars to punish evil were peaceful acts. The global community should do all it can to ensure peace. Christians should work for peace. Catholics and Anglicans say war is regrettable as it means peaceful actions have failed.

19
Q

What is Christian realism?

A

A theory developed in the 1920s by the Christian leader Reinhold Niebuhr. He said it is impossible to achieve ethical perfection as sin is in everyone. A result of this sinfulness is war. Although it is evil, it is sometimes necessary to prevent greater evils. He rejected pacifism as nations would always attack others, so war would be needed to stop them. Pacifism is therefore unrealistic in a sinful world.

20
Q

What is apocalyptic war?

A

War that would lead to catastrophic results and widespread destruction, usually referring to nuclear war.

21
Q

What are Christian attitudes to apocalyptic warfare?

A

The majority of Christians oppose it and consider it incompatible with faith. The Catholic Church and CofE say a nuclear war would not be just, as it would be disproportionate and harm civilians. The Methodist Church condemns all weapons of mass destruction, although not a nuclear deterrent. The Peace Churches say there is no justification for nuclear weapons.

22
Q

What are the Peace Churches?

A

Brethren, Mennonites, and Quakers. They are absolute pacifists.

23
Q

What is technological warfare?

A

The use of developments in technology to advance weapons and means of engaging in war, such as drones

24
Q

What are Christian attitudes to the use of drones in warfare?

A

There are concerns that it can reduce awareness of the human cost of war. They can cause large numbers of civilian deaths without risk for the operators. They do not necessarily go against Just War criteria, but can be used in a way that could, as they make going to war easier and less risky and make it harder to apply human judgement.

25
Q

What do Christians say about the value of peace?

A

Peace helps to limit suffering and develop harmony
Reducing conflict also reduces poverty and other harmful factors
Compassion can help achieve peace
Jesus taught that the peacemakers are blessed
Peace includes peace between God and humans, between humans, and between nations

26
Q

What is pacifism?

A

The belief that any use of violence is wrong, including any act of war

27
Q

What is absolute pacifism?

A

The belief that there should be no use of military force whatsoever - whether or not the cause is just

28
Q

What are some Bible stories that support pacifism?

A

Jesus gave himself up to death in his crucifixion without fighting back
When one of Jesus’ followers cut off the servant of the High Priest’s ear to stop Jesus getting arrested, Jesus healed the servant and criticised the follower
Paul taught that governments should be respected and that an act of rebellion is an act against God

29
Q

What is conditional pacifism?

A

The idea that war and violence is unacceptable, but in cases where the consequences of war would be less bad than the alternative, it is necessary.

30
Q

Who was George Fox and what did he say about pacifism?

A

He was the founder of the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers). He rejected violence and believed God gives believers his Spirit of peace

31
Q

What is the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament?

A

An organisation that campaigns for the Uk to get rid of its nuclear weapons, as well as international disarmament. They hold conferences, peaceful protests, and petitions. A section of it is the Christian CND, which opposes nuclear weapons based on their faith.

32
Q

What is Pax Christi?

A

An international Catholic peace movement, that aims to reflect the peace of Christ in the life of people and to promote non-violence. They hold public debates in nuclear weapons, criticise the government’s defence policy, and hold days of prayer and fasting.

33
Q

What are some examples of Christians using violence to achieve peace?

A

Nelson Mandela - he started out with a non-violent approach to end apartheid, but started using violence as a response to government force
Dietrich Bonhoeffer - he was a Church minister in Nazi Germany and was involved in a plot to assassinate Hitler, but this was discovered and he was executed. He believed God would judge him fairly as he was committed to justice

34
Q

What is forgiveness?

A

Making a choice to let go of the wrongs that have been dome

35
Q

What is reconciliation?

A

The restoring of relationships between former enemies and the creation and trust and understanding between them, rather than hostility and hatred

36
Q

What are some Bible stories on justice and forgiveness?

A

The Pharisees brought an adulterous women to Jesus, saying she should be stoned to death under law. Jesus turned his back on them and said that only those free from sin could harm her.
Jesus says to reflect on their own wrong before pointing out others’.
Paul teaches that Christians should avoid reacting with revenge, and act with loving kindness to everybody.
God commanded that Israel should uphold justice and hate evil in Amos.
In the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant a servant whose debts are forgiven does not forgive others’, so is tortured until he repaid his

37
Q

What is the Dialogue Club?

A

A Christian set up after the Rwandan genocide in 1994 to bring together victims and perpetrators, helping them to talk, forgive and reconcile. It is a form of restorative justice.

38
Q

What is restorative justice?

A

Allowing the person who has been wronged to speak to the person who has hurt them, usually with someone overseeing the process. It aims to help people understand the hurt caused, helping to achieve forgiveness.

39
Q

What is justice?

A

The fair and equal treatment of all people within a society, including the appropriate use of punishments and rewards

40
Q

What is social justice?

A

Justice in terms of the distribution of wealth, opportunities, and privileges within society. It results in unequal wealth, unfair treatment of individuals because of race, sexuality or religion and laws that support segregation

41
Q

What is the link between a just society and peace?

A

In a just society people are less likely to feel marginalised or disempowered, so the likelihood of acts such as terrorism taking root is reduced.
Crime is punished appropriately, adding to the sense of safety and reliance on law, rather than taking law into their own hands.

42
Q

How do some Christians work for social justice?

A

Supporting Fair Trade and buying Fair Trade products
Raising awareness of human trafficking
Supporting the work of groups such as the Salvation Army

43
Q

What is the Salvation Army?

A

A Christian denomination that aims to bring salvation to the poor destitute and hungry by working to meet their physical and spiritual needs. It works to combat homelessness, isolation of elderly people, and human trafficking.

44
Q

Who are some Christians who fought social injustice?

A

Martin Luther King - he used non-violent means to campaign against segregation and discrimination
Mother Teresa - she was a Catholic who worked in India to help those in poverty
Jackie Pullinger - she is a Protestant missionary to Hong Kong. She started a charity to help drug addicts and other people suffering

45
Q

What is Amnesty International?

A

An organisation that helps people who have been wrongly imprisoned. It draws attention to prisoners to achieve justice; they are non-violent.

46
Q

What is liberation theology?

A

Standing up against governments that oppress their people and authorities that misuse their powers based on the view that God has the power to change situations in the world that are unjust. Some may use violence when peaceful methods fail in order to fight for human rights.

47
Q

Who was Oscar Romero?

A

The Catholic Archbishop of El Salvador during a time of great social injustice, with the majority of the population poor and oppressed. He spoke up for the poor and oppressed, including Christians. He was shot and killed in his church while performing mass.

48
Q

Who was Camilo Torres Restrepo?

A

A Catholic priest in Colombia when the government was corrupt and the poor lacked proper food or shelter. He became known for using violence on behalf of the poor and became known as the ‘revolutionary priest’. He organised a movement to end poverty, but many of its members were killed by the state or disappeared, so he became convinced that force was the only option and joined a rebel group; he was killed in combat. Many in authority in the Catholic Church disapproved of his actions.