Muslim Beliefs Flashcards
What is niyyah?
The intention of the heart to do an act for Allah
What is Shirk?
Anything going against the teaching of Tawhid. If you think of anything as equal to Allah, you are guilty of committing shirk. It is the worst of all sins
What things could count as shirk?
Atheism, the Holy Trinity, polytheism, worshipping idols, non-theism, giving humans divine attributes, showing off
What is Greater Shirk?
Acts that commit shirk e.g. worshipping another God
What is Lesser Shirk?
Acts that might lead to committing shirk e.g. wearing a ‘lucky charm’
What are the five roots of Usul ad-Din?
Belief in Oneness and Unity of God: Al-Tawhid
Belief in Divine Justice: Al-Adl
Belief in Prophethood: Al-Nubuwwah
Belief in Imams: Al-Imamah
Belief in the Day of Resurrection - Al-Ma’ad
What are the Imams for Shi’a Muslims?
The twelve direct descendants and successors of Mohammed, chosen by Allah. They are infallible and inspired by Allah, who protects them from committing sin. Ali was the first leader, appointed by Mohammed, and every Imam had to confirm their successor. They preserved the religion and interpreted Shari’ah law, explaining any issues that came from it. The first 11 were martyred, while the 12th is waiting to appear at Allah’s appointed time.
What caused the split between Sunni and Shi’a Islam?
When Mohammed died most Muslims declared Abu Bakr as his successor, and he was called the first Caliph. However, Shi’a Muslims believe that Ali, Mohammed’s cousin, was his true successor and was chosen by him. Ali was later elected as the fourth Caliph.
What is Al-Adl?
The Shi’a belief that there is objective framework of right and wrong, Allah is perfect and always morally right, humans can work out what is right through reason and should use free will to act in the correct way, at the Day of Judgement Allah will judge people and send the righteous to heaven and the wicked to hell, and that pre-destination does not exist.
What is Tawhid?
The belief that Allah is the one God: that He alone created the Earth and sustains it
What are some key Muslim beliefs about Allah?
He is: Infinite Omnipotent Merciful and benevolent Transcendent and immanent Fair and just
Why do some Sunni Muslims believe that Shi’a Muslims do not fully believe in Tawhid?
The Twelve Imams have special characteristics and are often seen as semi-divine
What is a rasul?
A prophet or messenger, chosen by Allah to teach, guide, and train people to follow Him. They are human and not to be worshipped, but give guidance on how to follow Allah and live in a way that pleases Him. They all have equal status.
Why is Mohammed referred to as the Seal of the Prophets?
He is the final prophet as the Qur’an still exists in its original form, entirely unchanged, so is the direct word of Allah
What are some Holy Books in Islam and which prophets delivered them?
Qur'an - Mohammed Tawrat/Torah - Musa/Moses Zabur/Psalms - Dawud/David Injil/Gospel - Isa/Jesus Suhuf Ibrahim/Scrolls of Abraham - Ibrahim/Abraham
Who was Adam?
The first man created by Allah and the first Islamic prophet, created in the image of Allah. He was created from dust and life was breathed into him; Allah gave him knowledge and the ability to reason and make choices. He lived with Hawwa (Eve) in Jannah but Iblis (Satan) tempted them to eat from the forbidden tree. They asked for forgiveness, which Allah gave to them, but he sent them to Earth, where He would guide them. All humans are descendants of them.
Who was Ibrahim?
A prophet born into a polytheistic family - his father was an idol maker - but who rejected idols. Ibrahim told his father and the people of Babylon not to make idols, but they banished him. Allah told him to travel to Egypt with his wife. He is known as the father of the Arab people. Allah tested his faith e.g. by telling him to sacrifice his son Isma’il, which he was prepared to do, stoning Iblis, who told him not to. Rituals at Hajj commemorate him.
Who was Isma’il?
The son of Ibrahim and an Islamic prophet. Allah made Ibrahim leave him with his mother Hajar at the place where the Kaaba now stands. They only had some dates and water; when the water ran out Hajar ran between two hills seven times to find some. Isma’il then kicked the ground with heel and water appeared (ZamZam spring). Later Ibrahim and Isma’il rebuilt the Kaaba. From Isma’il came the Ishmaelite tribe, to which Mohammed belonged.