What weaknesses were present in pre-revolutionary Russia?
Czar Nicolas II was incompetent: lost to Jap. in Russo-Jap. war and entered Russia in WWI unfit for war.
What were the economic conditions in pre-revolutionary Russia?
Food shortages, 90% of pop was peasantry, and 2/3 of people couldn’t feed their family without going into debt.
What war impacted the rise of the Russian authoritarian state?
The Russian Civil War: Reds vs Whites (parties were suppressed), peasants supported the reds (90% of pop) (60s and 70s historians), and it established a highly centralized state.
How did Lenin’s ideology appeal to the people in Russia?
The peasants supported the Bolsheviks (60s-70s historians)
How was violence used in the rise of Russia’s authoritarian state?
The Russian Civil War. The Cheka and Red Terror: Cheka = secret police, Red Terror was mass execution. Terror was used to eliminating class enemies (Robert Conquest 60s-90s)
How was propaganda used in the rise of Russia’s authoritarian state?
Class war vs the Kulaks –> mythical wealthy class.
How did Stalin use legal methods to consolidate power?
He manipulated Russian politics to remove leaders like Trotsky and Zinoviev. Stalin hijacked the leadership (60s-70s historians).
How did Stalin use force to consolidate power?
Stalin’s brutality was effective (Martin McCauley 90s-2000s). Trials used to show evidence of a threat (Richard Overy 2000s)
How important was charismatic leadership in Stalin’s consolidation of power?
The Lenin Enrollment was used by Stalin to get 200k people to join the party. Stalin reinforced himself as the representative of the general will of the people. (Richard Overy 2000s)
How was the dissemination of propaganda used in Stalin’s maintenance of power?
Stalin’s cult of personality was important (Richard Overy 2000s)
How did Stalin treat his opposition?
Stalin used purges to control his opposition (Nicolas Werth 2000s).
How was Stalin successful in foreign policy?
Diplomacy/hard-power and “socialism in one country” doctrine (Michael Lynch)
How did Stalin fail in foreign policy?
Comintern failed at spreading communism (Michael Lynch)
What were the aims and impacts of Stalin’s domestic economic policies?
5-year plans, industrialization, and collectivization did 2 things: 1) they caused a massive famine 2) they made Rus. stronger (only that was Ian Grey 1970s)
What were the aims and impacts of Stalin’s domestic cultural policies?
Art as propaganda: awards given and the art was required to promote Stalin as a leader and/or communism. (Michael Lynch)
What were the aims and impacts of Stalin’s domestic political policies?
The Great Purges and the Great Terror.
What was the impact of Stalin’s policies on women?
They were degraded and objectified (Michael Lynch)
What was the impact of Stalin’s policies on minorities?
Purges were used to suppress independence movements as well as deportations (Michael Lynch)
Don’t forget about what?