8/27- Cardio Review 4 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8/27- Cardio Review 4 Deck (42):
1

The most specific abnormality in the R atrial P waveform in constrictive pericarditis is:

A. Large a wave

B. Large c wave

C. Large v wave

D. Steep x descent

E. Steep y descent

The most specific abnormality in the R atrial P waveform in constrictive pericarditis is:

A. Large a wave

B. Large c wave 

C. Large v wave 

D. Steep x descent 

E. Steep y descent

- Y descent represent rapid atrial emptying/rapid early ventricle filling

- In constrictive pericarditis, the Y descent is rapid/steep (enhanced early filling until it hits pericardial restriction)

- Steep X descent exists, but is not specific

 

2

What is the classic W sign in the atrial waveform? Dx?

- Steep X and steep Y descent 

- Pt may have constrictive pericarditis

3

Cardiac tamponade is characterized by:

A. Steep x descent

B. Steep y descent

C. Dip and plateau

D. Pulsus paradoxus

E. A and D

Cardiac tamponade is characterized by:

A. Steep x descent

B. Steep y descent

C. Dip and plateau

D. Pulsus paradoxus

E. A and D

4

All of the following are common physical findings in constrictive pericarditis except:

A. Kussmaul sign

B. Pulsus paradoxus

C. Steep x and y descent

D. Pericardial knock

All of the following are common physical findings in constrictive pericarditis except:

A. Kussmaul sign

B. Pulsus paradoxus

C. Steep x and y descent

D. Pericardial knock

5

The following are signs and symptoms of left heart failure except:

A. Dypsnea on exertion

B. Orthopnea

C. Ankle edema

D. Ventricular gallop

E. Inspiratory lung rales

The following are signs and symptoms of left heart failure except:

A. Dypsnea on exertion

B. Orthopnea

C. Ankle edema

D. Ventricular gallop

E. Inspiratory lung rales

6

A classical finding in patients with decompensated CHF with volume overload is:

A. Atrial gallop

B. Ventricular gallop

C. Prominent S4

D. Triple apical impulse

E. Bisferians arterial pulse

A classical finding in patients with decompensated CHF with volume overload is:

A. Atrial gallop

B. Ventricular gallop

C. Prominent S4

D. Triple apical impulse

E. Bisferians arterial pulse

S3 gallop:

- Ventricular gallop- low pitched, early diastolic

- Rapid early filling

- Decompensated CHF

- Volume overload

- May occur in normals

S4 gallop

- Atrial gallop- low pitched, late diastolic

- Atrial "kick"

- HTN, AS, IHSS

- Pressure overload

- May occur in normals

7

All of the following drugs improve survival in heart failure except?

A. ACE inhibitors

B. ARBs

C. Digoxin

D. Aldosterone antagonists

E. Beta blockers

All of the following drugs improve survival in heart failure except?

A. ACE inhibitors

B. ARBs

C. Digoxin

D. Aldosterone antagonists

E. Beta blockers

- Digoxin reduces hospitalizations for CHF but does not improve survival

- ACEI, ARB, and BB and aldosterone antagonists do BOTH (drugs that make it easier for ventricle to eject blood)

8

Would you recommend ACEi, ARB, BBs, or aldosterone antagonists for a HTN patient who has CHF?

A. Yes

B. No

Yes! 

 

9

Non-DHP CCB can result in all of the following effects except:

A. Lower BP

B. Reduce heart rate

C. Atrioventricular block

D. Reduce contractility

E. Improve survival in heart failure

Non-DHP CCB can result in all of the following effects except:

A. Lower BP

B. Reduce heart rate

C. Atrioventricular block

D. Reduce contractility

E. Improve survival in heart failure

- Among classes of drugs for CHF: need ACEI and/or B blocker

- None of the CCBs are preferred treatment for CHF

- Non-dihydropyridine are a particularly bad choice because they can reduce contractility

10

What drugs are included in the classification of Non-DHP CCBs?

- Verapamil

- Diltiazem

11

T/F: CCBs do NOT improve survival in CHF

True

12

What are the main ASEs of CCBs (Non-DHP?)?

- AV block

- Reduced contractility

- Reduced heart rate

13

All of the following maneuvers increase the systolic murmur of IHSS except?

A. Standing up 

B. Squatting

C. Sitting up

D. Valsalva

All of the following maneuvers increase the systolic murmur of IHSS except?

A. Standing up 

B. Squatting

C. Sitting up

D. Valsalva

- Squatting INCREASES venous return

14

The most common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is:

A. Primary ventricular fibrillation

B. Secondary ventricular fibrillation

C. Asystole

D. Sinus bradycardia

E. Torsades-de-Pointes

The most common cause of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is:

A. Primary ventricular fibrillation

B. Secondary ventricular fibrillation

C. Asystole

D. Sinus bradycardia

E. Torsades-de-Pointes

- Recall: Primary is not associated with MI

15

The most common valvular heart disease presenting with sudden cardiac death is:

A. Mitral stenosis

B. Mitral regurgitation

C. Aortic stenosis

D. Aortic regurgitation

E. Pulmonary stenosis

The most common valvular heart disease presenting with sudden cardiac death is:

A. Mitral stenosis

B. Mitral regurgitation

C. Aortic stenosis

D. Aortic regurgitation

E. Pulmonary stenosis

SCD due to arrhythmia due to severe concentric LVH they have

16

The most common potentially curable cause of 2' HTN is

A. Pheochromocytoma

B. Hyperaldosteronism

C. Coarctation of the aorta

D. Renal artery stenosis

E. Renal parenchymal disease

The most common potentially curable cause of 2' HTN is

A. Pheochromocytoma

B. Hyperaldosteronism

C. Coarctation of the aorta

D. Renal artery stenosis

E. Renal parenchymal disease

17

Do you expect BP to become NORMAL in a 72 yo man who undergoes stenting of the right renal artery?

A. Yes

B. No

Do you expect BP to become NORMAL in a 72 yo man who undergoes stenting of the right renal artery?

A. Yes

B. No

18

Do you expect BP to become NORMAL in a 17 yo woman who undergoes stenting of the right renal artery?

A. Yes

B. No

Do you expect BP to become NORMAL in a 17 yo woman who undergoes stenting of the right renal artery?

A. Yes

B. No

19

What is the pathologic cause of renal artery stenosis commonly presenting in younger women?

A. Fibromuscular dysplasia

B. Atherosclerosis

C. Arteriosclerosis

D. Vasculitis

What is the pathologic cause of renal artery stenosis commonly presenting in younger women?

A. Fibromuscular dysplasia

B. Atherosclerosis

C. Arteriosclerosis

D. Vasculitis

Renal a stensosi due to FMD in younger women is amenable to stenting with a high success rate in lowering BP

- If someone's BP has been elevated for only a short time, the BP is almost entirely ascribed to that renal a stenosis and can be fixed; if long-standing HTN, renal stenosis may just be a contributing factor

20

The most important first step in the appraoch to a pt referred to you with a single "high BP measurement" is:

A. Confirm diagnosis of HTN

B. Reduce dietary salt and fat intake

C. Start pharmacologic therapy

D. Advise regular exercise

E. Evaluation for cardiac complications

The most important first step in the appraoch to a pt referred to you with a single "high BP measurement" is:

A. Confirm diagnosis of HTN

B. Reduce dietary salt and fat intake

C. Start pharmacologic therapy

D. Advise regular exercise

E. Evaluation for cardiac complications

21

A 45 yo asymptomatic woman is referred to you with a BP of 220/140; you should first:

A. Evaluate for end-organ damage

B. Start nifedipine 10 mg now

C. Admit to the hospital right away

D. Confirm diagnosis of HTN

E. Reduce dietary salt for 3-6 mo

This is in the range for hypertensive crisis!

A 45 yo asymptomatic woman is referred to you with a BP of 220/140; you should first:

A. Evaluate for end-organ damage

B. Start nifedipine 10 mg now

C. Admit to the hospital right away

D. Confirm diagnosis of HTN

E. Reduce dietary salt for 3-6 mo

MUST admit in HTN emergencies for:

- HTN encephalopathy

- Retinal hemorrhages or papilledema

- Acute pulmonary edema

- Acute MI

- Acute aortic dissection

- Acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke

Since asymptomatic, would want to do blood test and fundi exam

22

What is the range for hypertensive crisis?

BP > 220/120

23

Which of the following drugs decrease(s) the risk of sudden cardiac death in acute MI?

A. Aspirin

B. Heparin

C. Platelet GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors

D. Beta adrenergic blockers

E. Nitroglycerin

Which of the following drugs decrease(s) the risk of sudden cardiac death in acute MI?

A. Aspirin

B. Heparin

C. Platelet GpIIb/IIIa inhibitors

D. Beta adrenergic blockers

E. Nitroglycerin

- SCD is typically arrhythmia; want something that decreases risk of an arrhythmia

24

What increase in BP is associated with 2x greater risk of ----?

20 mmHg increase -> 2x risk

KNOW THIS

25

What is the sequence o fevents in atherosclerosis?

1. Endothelial injury

2. Monocyte adhesion (to endothelial lining)

3. Monocyte migration

4. Smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration

Endothelial cells -> monocytes -> smooth muscle cells

KNOW THIS SEQUENCE

26

The risk of recurrent SCD is highest in which of the following?

A. Primary Vfib

B. Secondary Vfib

C. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia

D. Accelerated indioventricular arrhythmia (AIVR)

E. Asystole

The risk of recurrent SCD is highest in which of the following?

A. Primary Vfib

B. Secondary Vfib

C. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia

D. Accelerated indioventricular arrhythmia (AIVR)

E. Asystole

- Why primary Vfib pt typically gets AICD

- Sustained VT = VT that lasts at least 30s (this is an indication for AICD as well)

- AIVR i s very benign; unlike VT, it's rate is < 110/min

27

Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction is due to:

A. Progressive atherosclerotic coronary arterial narrowing

B. Vasospasm over a tight atherosclerotic lesion

C. Occlusive platelet aggregates

D. Plaque rupture triggering clot formation

Acute ST elevation myocardial infarction is due to:

A. Progressive atherosclerotic coronary arterial narrowing

B. Vasospasm over a tight atherosclerotic lesion

C. Occlusive platelet aggregates

D. Plaque rupture triggering clot formation 

- A massive STEMI may be compciated by acute decompensated Left heart failure with volume overload.....

28

CABG improves survival in all the following except:

A. 3 vessel CAD and EF < 50%

B. 95% stenosis of proximal LAD & RCA

C. Left main artery 70% narrowing

D. 70% RCA & EF > 65%

CABG improves survival in all the following except:

A. 3 vessel CAD and EF < 50%

B. 95% stenosis of proximal LAD & RCA

C. Left main artery 70% narrowing

D. 70% RCA & EF > 65%

CABG is preferred in

- 3 vessel CAD

- 2 vessel CAD with decreased EF

- 2 vessel CAD with proximal LAD

- Left main CAD

29

What is left main disease?

> 50% diameter stenosis in left main artery

- This is just 1 vessel disease

30

For which types of CAD do we typically intervene with surgery?

- 3 vessel disease

- Proximal LAD

- Left main disease

31

Hibernating myocardium is characterized by:

A. Chronic myocardial ischemia due to CAD

B. Depressed LVEF

C. Improvement in LVEF after CABG surgery

D. Decrease in the myocardial metabolism in response to chronic myocardial ischemia

E. All of the above

Hibernating myocardium is characterized by:

A. Chronic myocardial ischemia due to CAD

B. Depressed LVEF

C. Improvement in LVEF after CABG surgery

D. Decrease in the myocardial metabolism in response to chronic myocardial ischemia

E. All of the above

32

Are you aware of medications that decrease LDL lipid levels and improve survival of pts with CAD? Which of the following are they?

A. ACEIs

B. ARBs

C. Niacins

D. Statins

Are you aware of medications that decrease LDL lipid levels and improve survival of pts with CAD? Which of the following are they?

A. ACEIs

B. ARBs

C. Niacins

D. Statins

33

For any CAD manifestations, CAD, DM, anything... what is the goal LDL?

< 70 mg%!!

34

If no CAD or DM, what is the goal LDL?

 

Need to count the risk factors.... Idk

35

The mechanism of action of Class III anti-arrhythmic durgs is :

A. Inhibiting Na current

B. INhibiting Ca current

C. Antagonizing epinephrine/NE

D. K channel antagonists

The mechanism of action of Class III anti-arrhythmic durgs is :

A. Inhibiting Na current

B. INhibiting Ca current

C. Antagonizing epinephrine/NE

D. K channel bockers

36

All of the following are cardinal clinical manifestations in aortic stenosis except:

A. Syncope during stress

B. Exertional angina

C. Congestive heart failure

D. Dizziness during exercise

E. Peripheral edema or ascites

All of the following are cardinal clinical manifestations in aortic stenosis except:

A. Syncope during stress

B. Exertional angina

C. Congestive heart failure

D. Dizziness during exercise

E. Peripheral edema or ascites

37

LVEF is supernormal in early chronic MR because of:

A. Increased contractility

B. Decreased afterload

C. Increased preload

D. High sympathetic tone

E. Erroneous EF measurement

LVEF is supernormal in early chronic MR because of:

A. Increased contractility

B. Decreased afterload

C. Increased preload

D. High sympathetic tone

E. Erroneous EF measurement

38

In chronic MR, LVEF is expected to decrease after valve replacement because:

A. Afterload decreases

B. Afterload increases

C. Preload decreases

D. Preload increases

E. Contractility

In chronic MR, LVEF is expected to decrease after valve replacement because:

A. Afterload decreases

B. Afterload increases

C. Preload decreases

D. Preload increases

E. Contractility

39

The "new" gold standard and currently most used cardiac marker of acute MI is:

A. CK MB fraction

B. Troponin I or T

C. LDH

D. LDH cardiac specific isozyme 1

E. Renin (produced by the JGA)

The "new" gold standard and currently most used cardiac marker of acute MI is:

A. CK MB fraction

B. Troponin I or T

C. LDH

D. LDH cardiac specific isozyme 1

E. Renin (produced by the JGA)

40

A 90 yo man presents with left sided heart failure and has crescendo decrescendo systolic heart murmur best heard a the base radiating to the neck. What valvular heart disease does he have?

A. Mitral regurgitation due to MV anular dilatation

B. Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease

C. Aortic regurgiation due to syphilitic aortitis

D. Aortic stenosis due to senile calcific aortic stenosis

A 90 yo man presents with left sided heart failure and has crescendo decrescendo systolic heart murmur best heard a the base radiating to the neck. What valvular heart disease does he have?

A. Mitral regurgitation due to MV anular dilatation

B. Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease

C. Aortic regurgiation due to syphilitic aortitis

D. Aortic stenosis due to senile calcific aortic stenosis

41

A 30 yo woman presents with progressive exertional dyspnea and a  hollysstolic heart murmur best heart at the apex radiation to the axialla. Standing worsens the murmur. What valvular heart disease does she have?

A. Mitral regurgitation due to MV prolapse

B. Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease

C. Aortic regurgitation due to Marfan's syndrome

D. Aortic stenosis due to bicuspid aortic valve

A 30 yo woman presents with progressive exertional dyspnea and a  hollysstolic heart murmur best heart at the apex radiation to the axialla. Standing worsens the murmur. What valvular heart disease does she have?

A. Mitral regurgitation due to MV prolapse

B. Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease

C. Aortic regurgitation due to Marfan's syndrome

D. Aortic stenosis due to bicuspid aortic valve

42

What is the best anti-HTN treatment regimen for an obese diabetic HTN with stage II HTN

Didn't get the answers..

D. All of the above