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Flashcards in 8. Management and leadership Deck (46):

What are the functions of management?

- Setting objectives and planning: strategic -> tactical -> operational
- Organising resources to meet objectives: clear division of tasks
- Directing and motivating staff
- Coordinating activities: goals of each branch, division and region
- Controlling and measuring performance against target: take actions if under performance occur, on target -> positive feedback


What are the 3 managerial roles according to Mintzberg?

- Interpersonal roles: dealing with and motivating staff at all levels of the organisation
- Informational roles: acting as a source, receiver, transmitter of info
- Decisional roles: taking decisions and allocating resources to meet objectives


What are the 3 interpersonal roles?

- Figurehead
- Leader
- Liason


What does a figurehead do?

Perform social and legal duties, act as a symbolic leader of the organisation. e.g. greet visitors, sign legal docs, hosting receptions


What does a leader do?

Motivating subordinates, selecting and training managers and staff


What does a liason do?

Establish and maintaining contacts within and outside of organisation. e.g. business correspondence with other organisations


What are the 3 informational roles?

- Monitor
- Disseminator
- Spokesperson


What does a monitor do?

Seek and acquire work related information. e.g. attending seminars, business conferences, reading research reports


What does a disseminator do?

Sending information collected from external and internal sources to the relevant people within the organisation. e.g. send memos and reports


What does a spokesperson do?

Communicating information about the organisation - its position and achievement to the outsiders. e.g. communicate with press and TV media, presenting reports at AGM


What are the 4 decisional roles?

- Entrepreneur
- Negotiator
- Disturbance handler
- Resource allocator


What does an entrepreneur do?

Looking for new opportunities to develop the business. e.g. encourage new ideas, implement new innovations


What does a negotiator do?

Defends the business' interests. e.g. conducting negotiations and build up official links with other organisations


What does a disturbance handler do?

Responding to changing situations that may put business at risk. e.g. settle conflicts between subordinates, choose strategic alternatives to respond to a change in the business environment


What does a resource allocator do?

Decide where to apply resources and the allocation of its physical and human resources. e.g. drawing up and approving estimates and budget, deciding on staffing levels for departments


Define leadership

The art of motivating a group of people towards achieving a common objective


Why is leadership important?

- Clear vision: understanding of the organisational direction and allows staff to clearly understand their roles and responsibilities
- Motivation
- Effective planning


Qualities of a good leader

- Desire to succeed and self confidence
- Able to think beyond the obvious - to be creative and encourage others to do the same
- Multi talented so they can understand discussions about a wide range of issues affecting their business
- Incisive mind that enables the heart of the issue to be identified rather than the unnecessary details


What are the important leadership positions in business?

- Directors
- Managers
- Supervisors
- Workers' representatives


What do directors do?

- Delegate within the department
- Assisting in the recruitment of senior staff
- Make strategic decisions that are based on what the shareholders want
- Coordinate all departments


What do managers do?

Direct, motivate and discipline staff within their department and make tactical decisions based on what the directors want


What do supervisors do?

- Appointed by managers/directors to help staff achieve objectives in a cooperative spirit
- Responsible for leading a team of people working towards pre-set goals


What do workers' representatives do?

Elected by workers or as trade union officials in order to discuss areas of common concerns with managers


What are the 4 leadership styles?

- Autocratic: keeps all decision making at the centre of the organisation
- Democratic: promotes the active participation of workers in taking decisions
- Paternalistic: based on the approach that managers are in better positions to know what's best for the organisation
- Laissez faire: leaves much of the decision making to the workforce


Main features of autocratic leadership style

- Leader takes all decisions
- Gives little info to staff
- Supervises workers closely
- Only one way communication


Drawbacks of autocratic leadership style

- Demotivates staff who want to contribute
- Decisions do not benefit from staff input


Possible applications of autocratic leadership style

- Defense force and police where quick decisions are needed
- Emergency situations


Main features of democratic leadership style

- Participation encouraged
- 2 way communication, allows feedback from staff
- Workers given info about business to allow full staff involvement


Drawbacks of democratic leadership style

- Consultation with staff can be time consuming
- Disagreements between staff/managers


Possible applications of democratic leadership style

- An experienced and flexible workforce
- In situations that demand a new way of thinking/ideas


Main features of paternalistic leadership style

- Managers do what they think is best for the workers
- Some consultation might take place but final decisions are taken by managers
- Managers want workers to be happy in their jobs


Drawbacks of paternalistic leadership style

Some workers are dissatisfied with the attempt to consult while not having any real power or influence


Possible applications of paternalistic leadership style

When workers are young and inexperienced => genuine concern for their interests but feel that managers know best


Main features of laissez-faire leadership style

Managers establish very broad criteria or limits for the staff to work within


Drawbacks of laissez-faire leadership style

- Workers may not appreciate the lack of structure and direction in their work
- Lack of feedback as managers will not be closely monitoring progress
=> demotivating


Possible applications of laissez-faire leadership style

Where workers are experts and therefore arrive at solutions when not constrained by narrow rules or management control


What are the 2 components of McGregor's theory of management?

- Theory X: authoritarian management style
- Theory Y: participative management style


What does the Theory X say?

- The average person dislikes work and will avoid it when they can
- Most people must be forced with the threat of punishment to work towards to objectives
- Average person prefers to be directed, avoid responsibility and is relatively unambitious, wants security above all
=> tight control, no development, produces limited and depressed culture


What does Theory Y say?

- Effort in work is as natural as work and play
- People will apply self control and self dedication in the pursuit of organisational obj, without external control or threat of punishment
- Commitment to objectives is a function of rewards associated with their achievement
- Accept and seek responsibility
- Capacity to use a high degree of imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving problems
=> liberating and developmental control, achievement and continuous improvement achieved by enabling, empowering and giving responsibility


What is emotional intelligence?

The ability to understand their own emotions, and those of the people they work with. Refers to how we handle ourselves and our relationships


What's Goleman’s four competencies of emotional intelligence?

self-awareness, social awareness, self-management and
social skills


Self awareness

- Knowing what we feel
- Having realistic view of our own abilities and having self confidence in our abilities


Self management

- Being able to recover quickly from stress
- Being trustworthy and conscientious
- Showing initiative and self control


Social awareness

- Sensing what others are feeling
- Empathy


Social skills/Relationship management

- Handling emotions in relationships
- Understanding different social situations
- Using social skills to lead, persuade and negotiate


What are formal and informal leadership?

- Formal leader is a member of organization who has given authority by virtue of his position to influence other members of organization to achieve organizational goals. - An informal leader has no formal organizational authority to influence others but possesses special kills and talent to influence and lead other members of organization