8.3- Changing Places: Meaning And Representation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 8.3- Changing Places: Meaning And Representation Deck (49):

The notion that places change because of the constant movement of people, ideas, wealth and information within them has already been discussed. A further dimension relates to

The meaning and representation of place


Meaning relates to

Individual or collective perceptions of place


Representation is how

A place is portrayed in society


Both meaning and representation of place may

Change over time- they also vary between people and communities (as shown by the example of Belfast and place study of Brick Lane). In the latter it is clear that different groups of people attach different values and meanings to the area and hold different views on its present and future development.


Sense of place refers to

The subjective and emotional attachment people have to a place. People develop a ‘sense of place’ through experience and knowledge of a particular area


Places can hold historical, spiritual or cultural significance- but for children it is primarily

The emotional attachment associated with places that give them meaning and this is why ‘home’ is often the most important place


Developing a sense of place is important- research suggest that

Connecting to one’s surrounding environment establishes knowledge of and appreciation for its resources; a sense of place supports the development of personal identity; having a strong sense of place can inspire stewardship and understanding


Sense of place is said to nurture

Empathy- could we therefore argue that our own experience and enjoyment of place is critical to our understanding of place


Places can create memories- place-memory refers to

The ability of place to make the past come to life in the present


Place-memory can occur through

Material artefacts such as old photographs and place souvenirs


The preservation of buildings, monuments, museums and places are all examples of

The ‘placing’ of memory, which can then be used to create a public memory


Attractions such as _____ _____ _____ of the North enable visitors experience a sense of place by standing inside and walking around recreated places

Beamish Living Museum of the North


Sense of place can be contrasted to perception of place which is developed through

What people have heard,seen or read about a place


Dartmoor National Park in Devon is closely linked with the ideas of nature and wilderness in different artistic and literary works including

Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Hound of the Baskervilles (featuring detective Sherlock Holmes)


many contemporary images of Dartmoor continue to associate the moor with wilderness but these hide important

Human activities and conflicts that include mining, farming and quarrying


When it comes to researching place, daily life is the best fieldwork. Cresswell argues that

“The world itself is the best kind of resource for thinking about place and a lot can be learned from reflecting on everyday experience”


Traditionally, geography fieldwork has focused on explaining and analysing. Cultural geography encourages

A more emotional, poetic and spiritual approach to fieldwork- one in which we get more of a ‘place experience’ and one which enhances our awareness of what it means to ‘be in place’.


Management and manipulation of the perception of place- perceptions of international places tend to be influenced more by

The media than by personal and direct experience- other influences such as historical and political relationships or trading links may also influence how a country is perceived


Why is positive place perception important at an international level?

Governments are keen to attract trade and investment into their counties and so a positive place perception is therefore important at an international level


Organisations such as the British council help to promote the UK through

educational and cultural links


The government and monarchy are also seen to play a pivotal role in

Promoting international relations for the UK


What is the GREAT tourism campaign?

In today’s competitive global tourism market Britain needs to stand out to attract overseas visitors by demonstrating all of Britain’s great attributes and opportunities


What are the objectives behind GREAT tourism campaign?

Boosting Britain’s image overseas, increasing the aspire to travel here and turning this aspiration into bookings, encouraging visitors to explore the whole of Britain adding value to the UK tourist industry and thus Britain’s economy


What are some key facts about GREAT tourism campaign?

Through our GREAT campaign in 2015/2016:
- generated over £800 million in additional visitor spend by overseas travellers
- proportion of nights spent in Scotland increased by 30% and by more than 3X in Wales
- consumers’ interest to visit outside of London has reached peak levels since 2012


Regarding the government, at both national and local level, strategies have been adopted to manage and manipulate perception of place in order to attract people and investment to a place- these include

Place marketing, re-branding and re-imaging


What is involved in place marketing?

Marketing or public relations (PR) companies may be employed by national and local government to improve and create positive perceptions of place


What’s an example of place marketing?

Weston- Super- Mare in Somerset


Have strategies have been used in Weston-Super-Mare? (Place marketing)

- advertising campaigns including social media marketing through Facebook
- an official Weston-Super-Mare website and newsletter
- a Weston-Super-Mare logo
- creation and promotion of the first ever Love Weston Winter Wonderland, a festive attraction incorporating the annual Christmas light switch-on - aim was to increase perceptions of Weston-Super-Mare as a destination point for Christmas shopping


What is rebranding?

The way or ways in which a place is re-developed and marketed so that it gains a new identity- it can then attract new investments, tourists and residents. Re-branding can involve both re-imaging and regeneration


What’s an example of re-branding?

Rebranding Amsterdam


Why was Amsterdam rebranded?

In the late twentieth century, Amsterdam’s reputations as a major international cultural centre had been threatened by a number of factors including:
- greater competition from other cities both within and outside of the Netherlands
- social and economic decline in some areas
- the city’s reputation for being liberal towards soft drugs and prostitution which was seen as inappropriate for attracting new businesses and enterprises


What rebranding strategies were adopted in Amsterdam?

- ‘I am Amsterdam’ slogan, seen to be clear, concise, yet powerful and thus memorable
- ‘I am Amsterdam’ letters positioned in front of the city’s famous Rijksmuseum in 2005 and the sculpture is now the city’s most photographed item, being photographed over 8000 times a day on sunny days
- the use of smartphones and social media has seen the image spread all over the world and Amsterdam has become one of the most successful destination brands on social media


What has been the result of Amsterdam’s rebranding strategies?

given the last 10 years to imprint the new identity, Amsterdam has experienced increased tourism and is one of the top 5 European cities based on its brand strength and cultural assets


What are the consequences of rebranding?

- different stakeholders may include pre-existing residents, local businesses, potential investors, local government and potential homeowners or visitors and the challenge is to satisfy as many of these groups as possible

- pre-existing residents often want to protect and project their local distinctiveness whole development agencies seek to establish place brands based on government incentives, available technology and an areas’s international links

- some city regeneration schemes have actually driven out the locals they originally intended to help as rising property prices and rents have only been available to the more affluent individuals


What is re-imaging?

Linked to rebranding, re-imaging seeks to discard negative perceptions of place and generate a new, positive set of ideas, feelings and attitudes of people to that place


Re-imaging may include the revival of a pre-existing but outdated image. More commonly, it seeks to

Change a poor pre-existing image of a place- which has been well documented through the example of Liverpool in the 1980s and 1990s


What caused an economic downturn in Liverpool? Riots in 1981 had dominated newspaper headlines.



Large-scale regeneration began and the Tate Liverpool art gallery was one of a number of projects aimed at

Re-imaging the city’s industrial heritage through culture


The Merseyside Development corporation used the term:

“There’s life in the old docks yet”


The exterior of the Grade 1-listed warehouses of the Albert docks remained untouched but

The derelict interiors were transformed into modern art galleries


What was seen as a key factor in Liverpool winning the title of European capital of culture in 2008? ( far cry from the negative imagery of the city in in the early 1980s)

The Tate


What is a corporate body?

An organisation or a group of persons that is identified by a particular name e.g institutions, businesses, non-profit enterprises and government agencies


Many corporate bodies will have an interest in place but some will want to

Manipulate perceptions of place e.g. tourist industries aim to ‘sell’ place to potential visitors and marketing positive perceptions of place makes this easier


Regarding corporate bodies, in the UK tourist organisations range from

Visit Britain (non-departmental public body funded by the Department for culture) to the individuals responsible for promoting a specific tourist attraction- the strategies are similar, to make a place look as good as it can and attract as many visitors as possible. Promotional materials such as brochures, videos, websites, magazine advertisements and logos are used and a place may adopt as USP


What’s an example of the work of corporate bodies?



What did corporate bodies do in Pembrokeshire?

In 2012, the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park put vintage-inspired designs featuring nostalgic images of the Pembrokeshire coast on show at Cardiff airport, UK railway stations, and across the London Underground in order to increase tourism to the area (posters won numerous awards and were also successful in attracting more people to the area)


Regarding corporate bodies, airlines and train companies also seek to manage perceptions of place but they do so in order to

Get people to use their travel services to visit these place- railway companies often commissioned posters, sometimes by famous artists, to sell the delights of the British coast, towns/cities and countryside and therefore boost the numbers of train passengers wanting to get there


What is the role of the community and local groups in the management and manipulation of place?

- community or local groups may take an active role in the managing and improving the perception of their place to attract investment and improve opportunities and services within the area


Regeneration and rebranding strategies have increasingly involved

Local people, since they have ‘insider’ experience of place and will be the people most affected by any changes