Flashcards in 8.3- Changing Places: Meaning And Representation Deck (49):
The notion that places change because of the constant movement of people, ideas, wealth and information within them has already been discussed. A further dimension relates to
The meaning and representation of place
Meaning relates to
Individual or collective perceptions of place
Representation is how
A place is portrayed in society
Both meaning and representation of place may
Change over time- they also vary between people and communities (as shown by the example of Belfast and place study of Brick Lane). In the latter it is clear that different groups of people attach different values and meanings to the area and hold different views on its present and future development.
Sense of place refers to
The subjective and emotional attachment people have to a place. People develop a ‘sense of place’ through experience and knowledge of a particular area
Places can hold historical, spiritual or cultural significance- but for children it is primarily
The emotional attachment associated with places that give them meaning and this is why ‘home’ is often the most important place
Developing a sense of place is important- research suggest that
Connecting to one’s surrounding environment establishes knowledge of and appreciation for its resources; a sense of place supports the development of personal identity; having a strong sense of place can inspire stewardship and understanding
Sense of place is said to nurture
Empathy- could we therefore argue that our own experience and enjoyment of place is critical to our understanding of place
Places can create memories- place-memory refers to
The ability of place to make the past come to life in the present
Place-memory can occur through
Material artefacts such as old photographs and place souvenirs
The preservation of buildings, monuments, museums and places are all examples of
The ‘placing’ of memory, which can then be used to create a public memory
Attractions such as _____ _____ _____ of the North enable visitors experience a sense of place by standing inside and walking around recreated places
Beamish Living Museum of the North
Sense of place can be contrasted to perception of place which is developed through
What people have heard,seen or read about a place
Dartmoor National Park in Devon is closely linked with the ideas of nature and wilderness in different artistic and literary works including
Arthur Conan Doyle’s The Hound of the Baskervilles (featuring detective Sherlock Holmes)
many contemporary images of Dartmoor continue to associate the moor with wilderness but these hide important
Human activities and conflicts that include mining, farming and quarrying
When it comes to researching place, daily life is the best fieldwork. Cresswell argues that
“The world itself is the best kind of resource for thinking about place and a lot can be learned from reflecting on everyday experience”
Traditionally, geography fieldwork has focused on explaining and analysing. Cultural geography encourages
A more emotional, poetic and spiritual approach to fieldwork- one in which we get more of a ‘place experience’ and one which enhances our awareness of what it means to ‘be in place’.
Management and manipulation of the perception of place- perceptions of international places tend to be influenced more by
The media than by personal and direct experience- other influences such as historical and political relationships or trading links may also influence how a country is perceived
Why is positive place perception important at an international level?
Governments are keen to attract trade and investment into their counties and so a positive place perception is therefore important at an international level
Organisations such as the British council help to promote the UK through
educational and cultural links
The government and monarchy are also seen to play a pivotal role in
Promoting international relations for the UK
What is the GREAT tourism campaign?
In today’s competitive global tourism market Britain needs to stand out to attract overseas visitors by demonstrating all of Britain’s great attributes and opportunities
What are the objectives behind GREAT tourism campaign?
Boosting Britain’s image overseas, increasing the aspire to travel here and turning this aspiration into bookings, encouraging visitors to explore the whole of Britain adding value to the UK tourist industry and thus Britain’s economy
What are some key facts about GREAT tourism campaign?
Through our GREAT campaign in 2015/2016:
- generated over £800 million in additional visitor spend by overseas travellers
- proportion of nights spent in Scotland increased by 30% and by more than 3X in Wales
- consumers’ interest to visit outside of London has reached peak levels since 2012
Regarding the government, at both national and local level, strategies have been adopted to manage and manipulate perception of place in order to attract people and investment to a place- these include
Place marketing, re-branding and re-imaging
What is involved in place marketing?
Marketing or public relations (PR) companies may be employed by national and local government to improve and create positive perceptions of place
What’s an example of place marketing?
Weston- Super- Mare in Somerset
Have strategies have been used in Weston-Super-Mare? (Place marketing)
- advertising campaigns including social media marketing through Facebook
- an official Weston-Super-Mare website and newsletter
- a Weston-Super-Mare logo
- creation and promotion of the first ever Love Weston Winter Wonderland, a festive attraction incorporating the annual Christmas light switch-on - aim was to increase perceptions of Weston-Super-Mare as a destination point for Christmas shopping
What is rebranding?
The way or ways in which a place is re-developed and marketed so that it gains a new identity- it can then attract new investments, tourists and residents. Re-branding can involve both re-imaging and regeneration
What’s an example of re-branding?
Why was Amsterdam rebranded?
In the late twentieth century, Amsterdam’s reputations as a major international cultural centre had been threatened by a number of factors including:
- greater competition from other cities both within and outside of the Netherlands
- social and economic decline in some areas
- the city’s reputation for being liberal towards soft drugs and prostitution which was seen as inappropriate for attracting new businesses and enterprises
What rebranding strategies were adopted in Amsterdam?
- ‘I am Amsterdam’ slogan, seen to be clear, concise, yet powerful and thus memorable
- ‘I am Amsterdam’ letters positioned in front of the city’s famous Rijksmuseum in 2005 and the sculpture is now the city’s most photographed item, being photographed over 8000 times a day on sunny days
- the use of smartphones and social media has seen the image spread all over the world and Amsterdam has become one of the most successful destination brands on social media
What has been the result of Amsterdam’s rebranding strategies?
given the last 10 years to imprint the new identity, Amsterdam has experienced increased tourism and is one of the top 5 European cities based on its brand strength and cultural assets
What are the consequences of rebranding?
- different stakeholders may include pre-existing residents, local businesses, potential investors, local government and potential homeowners or visitors and the challenge is to satisfy as many of these groups as possible
- pre-existing residents often want to protect and project their local distinctiveness whole development agencies seek to establish place brands based on government incentives, available technology and an areas’s international links
- some city regeneration schemes have actually driven out the locals they originally intended to help as rising property prices and rents have only been available to the more affluent individuals
What is re-imaging?
Linked to rebranding, re-imaging seeks to discard negative perceptions of place and generate a new, positive set of ideas, feelings and attitudes of people to that place
Re-imaging may include the revival of a pre-existing but outdated image. More commonly, it seeks to
Change a poor pre-existing image of a place- which has been well documented through the example of Liverpool in the 1980s and 1990s
What caused an economic downturn in Liverpool? Riots in 1981 had dominated newspaper headlines.
Large-scale regeneration began and the Tate Liverpool art gallery was one of a number of projects aimed at
Re-imaging the city’s industrial heritage through culture
The Merseyside Development corporation used the term:
“There’s life in the old docks yet”
The exterior of the Grade 1-listed warehouses of the Albert docks remained untouched but
The derelict interiors were transformed into modern art galleries
What was seen as a key factor in Liverpool winning the title of European capital of culture in 2008? ( far cry from the negative imagery of the city in in the early 1980s)
What is a corporate body?
An organisation or a group of persons that is identified by a particular name e.g institutions, businesses, non-profit enterprises and government agencies
Many corporate bodies will have an interest in place but some will want to
Manipulate perceptions of place e.g. tourist industries aim to ‘sell’ place to potential visitors and marketing positive perceptions of place makes this easier
Regarding corporate bodies, in the UK tourist organisations range from
Visit Britain (non-departmental public body funded by the Department for culture) to the individuals responsible for promoting a specific tourist attraction- the strategies are similar, to make a place look as good as it can and attract as many visitors as possible. Promotional materials such as brochures, videos, websites, magazine advertisements and logos are used and a place may adopt as USP
What’s an example of the work of corporate bodies?
What did corporate bodies do in Pembrokeshire?
In 2012, the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park put vintage-inspired designs featuring nostalgic images of the Pembrokeshire coast on show at Cardiff airport, UK railway stations, and across the London Underground in order to increase tourism to the area (posters won numerous awards and were also successful in attracting more people to the area)
Regarding corporate bodies, airlines and train companies also seek to manage perceptions of place but they do so in order to
Get people to use their travel services to visit these place- railway companies often commissioned posters, sometimes by famous artists, to sell the delights of the British coast, towns/cities and countryside and therefore boost the numbers of train passengers wanting to get there
What is the role of the community and local groups in the management and manipulation of place?
- community or local groups may take an active role in the managing and improving the perception of their place to attract investment and improve opportunities and services within the area