What is naturalism?
Only natural laws and forces exist in nature/can be detected in nature (without external forces/power/manipulation/control/control of god)
When did the French revolution occur and what was it about?
French rise and took down their government and monarchy (Anti-church and Atheist ousted the government)
Abolished churches and cathedrals – turned them into secular temples of reason (worship logic and reason)
Pierre-Simon Laplace vs Napoleon
• Laplace said that the universe worked on natural laws and there is no place for God.
Who was associated with the argument of design by a divine being?
What was the Bridgewater Treatises about and how many volumes were there?
It was about how God is involved in the creation of earth and living things.
Who wrote the 9th Bridgewater treatise and what was it about?
Mock the other 8 Bridgewater treatise by saying that it is silly to think that you can learn more about God by studying nature
He said that nature is governed and run by natural laws whether you are aware/believe in it or not
Who was known as the inventor of the computer?
What was the book “Architecture of the heavens” by J.P Nichol in 1837 about?
• Nebula: Spinning clouds; Nebula hypothesis: suggests that the solar system was formed from these spinning discs of dusts and gases in the space by laws of gravity (formed by a gradual process – nebula evolved into a solar system)
What is phrenology and who invented it?
First scientific psychology
It is the belief that the bumps on one’s head showed structures of the brain - thereby revealing one’s strengths and weaknesses and characteristics
Franz Joseph Gall
When did Phrenology die down?
Who brought phrenology to Britain (in particular Edinburgh)
Johann Gaspar Spurzheim - disciple of Franz Joseph Gall
Who published “The Constitution of Man” and when was it published?
George Combe in 1828
What was “The Constitution of Man” about?
Argued that human beings are subjected to natural laws and he developed his own sort of philosophy of natural laws (copied from French philosophers)
His book states that the laws of nature is what you need in order to live a good life (will still die if you are sailing on a poorly maintained ship even if you are very religious) natural laws does not take morality and religious beliefs into account
Had a system of 3 laws: Physical, Organic and Moral
Message of the book: Man must live in accordance to the laws of nature instead of just following the moral laws
Scholarly edit and study of the bible (found the bible had many different versions and writing styles
What was the Victorian crisis of faith?
People were starting to doubt their faith in Christianity after reading and getting exposed to these radical ideas from the Vestiges/OOS/Constitution of Man etc.
Who pushed for scientific professionalism
Thomas Henry Huxley
What was John Tyndall’s Belfast Address in 1874 about?
British Association for the advancement of science was meeting in Belfast, Ireland.
Said that religion must keep out of the boundaries of Science (religion had no power over science)
Promotes the sufficiency of natural laws – natural laws work by themselves to make the world go around – no room for God
What is a pantheist?
A person who equates naturen with God
What was the Victorian Evangelicalism?
Devoted to their own version of Christianity that regarded the bible as the bedrock of their beliefs (sceptical of science)
Fierce opponents of anything that denies god
How did Darwin’s theory of evolution become so successful in such a religious and conservative world back then?
various movement There were various movements that pushed the idea that nature is working by its own (God was so clever that he designed everything so that he did not intervene) – convinced the religious people that Darwin’s theories did not challenge/affect the fundamental of their faith.
They’ve seen so many radical books coming in and out (e.g. vestiges etc.) – these radical views were brought up slowly and gradually