Ch 1 Political Nation & Social Basis of Power Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Ch 1 Political Nation & Social Basis of Power Deck (35)
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1
Q

Define the ‘Political Nation’

A

-refers to those people w/ economic, political & social influence on how the country is ruled (based on land ownership as wealth = power)

2
Q

Who was head of the Political Nation?

A

-the monarch

3
Q

What did Kishlanksy say about the Political Nation?

A

-the monarch remained “atop the political hierarchy”

4
Q

Define ‘Personal Monarchy’

A

-the characters & personalities of each monarch did much to shape the period & monarch’s relationship w/ rest of Political Nation (particularly institution of Parliament)

5
Q

Define ‘Divine Right of Kings’

A

-idea that monarchs had a God-given right to rule & that rebellion against them was a sin

6
Q

Define ‘Absolutism’

A

-government where monarch had absolute power (unlimited), able to make laws & raise taxes without approval of Parliament

7
Q

Define ‘Prerogative’

A

-power of the Crown, included the right to call & dissolve Parliament as wanted (legislation); declare war due to divine right of kings; religion (head of Church of England); foreign diplomacy

8
Q

What hindered a monarch’s power to rule?

A
  • money/income
  • inflation in general prices meant income did not meet expenses (foreign policy, warfare & international diplomacy)
  • did not possess force or civil service to impose will independently (needed help to control nation)
9
Q

How would a monarch raise funds?

A

-ask for Parliamentary subsidies

10
Q

Why were Parliament reluctant to grant subsidies?

A
  • money raised came from taxing Political Nation
  • only the wealthy had to pay, so had a vested interest in not granting subsidies (as wealthy was themselves e.g. lawyers, merchants, landed aristocracy & gentry)
  • also helped limit development of monarch become self-sufficient & absolute
11
Q

What did limited availability of Parliamentary subsidies mean for the monarch?

A

-monarch sometimes forced to exploit their prerogative income (money received due to position of monarch) to raise funds

12
Q

Define ‘Crown Lands’ as form of Prerogative Income

A

-crown sold or rented land out on long leases at fixed rate; meant they couldn’t update rents w/ inflation; so income was reduced

13
Q

Define ‘Customs Duties’ as form of Prerogative Income

A
  • taxes from goods imported into the country; encouraged people to buy home goods
  • crown could also temporarily sell right to collect this tax to raise quick funds
14
Q

Define ‘Feudal Dues’ as form of Prerogative Income

A

-crown had right to control an estate inherited by a person under age of 21

15
Q

Define ‘Parliamentary Subsidy’ as form of Prerogative Income

A

-funds approved by Parliament for emergencies such as war

16
Q

What was concern if monarch became financially self-sufficient?

A

-monarch could then establish themselves as ‘absolute’ as wouldn’t need Parliament to raise funds

17
Q

What was Political Nation responsible for?

A
  • collecting taxes
  • conducting trials
  • enforcing laws
  • training military
18
Q

How did one qualify to be in Political Nation?

A

-minimum requirement to have annual income of 40shillings (£2) as was needed to qualify to vote for one’s local members of Parliament

19
Q

Define the ‘Great Chain of Being’

A

-idea of an ordered society set in place by God; everyone linked to each other & must accept their place in society

20
Q

Define ‘Unwritten Constitution’

A
  • England had no written constitution documenting rules by how state was run
  • unwritten constitution consisted of parliamentary laws, common law, Magna Carta, tradition & custom
  • open to interpretation (adv & disadv)
  • ability to interpret constitution in different ways enabled compromise
21
Q

What were the negative consequences of Population Growth 1500-1650?

A
  • price inflation (particularly food)
  • food shortage
  • land shortage
  • unemployment
  • greater reliance on state for poor relief
22
Q

Who were the significant force within the Political Nation?

A

-gentry, pseudo-gentry, landed elite & merchant class

23
Q

What were Privy Council responsible for?

higher powers of PN

A
  • body of advisors to aid King, made of diplomats, chancellors, judges & military leaders
  • all chosen by king; held power over Parliament
24
Q

What were Parliament responsible for?

higher powers of PN

A
  • met to raise finance for laws & war (subsidies)

- King called & dissolved Parliament

25
Q

What were Court of Chancery responsible for?

higher powers of PN

A

-court of equity (fairness) avoiding change of harshness in common law courts

26
Q

What were Common Law Courts responsible for?

higher powers of PN

A
  • followed common law of country

- longer disputes as had to look into law

27
Q

What was Exchequer responsible for?

higher powers of PN

A

-government office for collecting taxes

28
Q

What was Justice of Peace responsible for?

county officials of PN

A
  • responsible for law & order in small county’s

- reside over low level courts

29
Q

What was Lord Lieutenant responsible for?

county officials of PN

A

-in charge of raising troops when needed

30
Q

What were Assize Judges responsible for?

county officials of PN

A

-dealt w/ bigger criminal matters in county

31
Q

What were Constables responsible for?

parish officials of PN

A
  • responsible for law & order in community (local level)

- collected taxes & settled land disputes

32
Q

What were Overseers Of responsible for?

parish officials of PN

A
  • dealt w/ looking after poor (gave money & food)
  • unpaid volunteers for local areas
  • the church
33
Q

What were Town officials responsible for?

parish officials of PN

A

-group of men organised by state to deter criminal action & provide law enforcement

34
Q

What were Church Wardens responsible for?

parish officials of PN

A

-encouraging peace in church & looking after it

35
Q

What were Sheriffs responsible for?

county officials of PN

A
  • collected revenues, rents & fines
  • helped to keep order
  • king’s representatives