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Flashcards in 9/11- Pulmonary Infections Deck (43)
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What are the various routes of infection to the lungs?

- Inhalation of contaminated droplets/aerosols

- Aspiration

- Hematogenous

- Direct extension


What are host defenses to lung infections?


- Anatomical (nasal turbinates, nasal hairs, glottis, branching airways)

- Cough reflex

- Mucociliary escalator

Immune-based responses: alveolar macrophages and surfactant proteins

- Engulf, opsonize and kill bacteria and viruses

- Release inflammatory mediators to defend the lung =>syndrome of pneumonia


What are risk factors for community acquired pneumonia?

- Alcoholism

- Asthma

- Immunosuppression

- Institutionalization

- Age > 70


Clinical manifestations of CAP?

Onset/prodrome: insidious, acute or fulminant

Severity: mild to fatal


- Fever, cough (dry or productive), pleuritic chest pain, chills or rigors, shortness of breath

- Associated symptoms: HA, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, myalgia, fatigue


What is found on the physical exam of pt with pneumonia?

- Tachypnea

- Fremitus – increased or decreased

- Percussion – dull or flat

- Crackles

- Pleural friction rub

- Whispered pectoriloquy (increased clarity of whispered words; same connotation as bronchopony)

- Egophony – E to A (extreme bronchophony)


What are the typical etiologic agents of community acquired pneumonia? Atypical?


- Strep pneumoniae

- Hemophilus influenzae

- Staph aureus


- Klebsiella pneumoniae


- Mycoplasma pneumoniae

- Chlamydia pneumoniae

- Legionella spp

- Respiratory viruses

- Fungi

Vary according to geographic areas, patient population, season, age group

(Only find etiologic agent in 1/2 of outpts or 2/3 of inpts.. in everyday practice, 70% of cases are not identified)


What common pathogens are associated with alcoholism?

- S pneumoniae

- Oral anaerobes

Gram negative bacilli:

- Klebsiella

- Acinetobacter

- M TB


What common pathogens are associated with bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis?

- Pseudomonas

- Burkholderia cepacia

- Staph aureus


What common pathogens are associated with COPD?

- H influenzae

- Pseudomonas

- Legionella

- S pneumoniae

- Moraxella catarrhalis


What common pathogens are associated with Flu season?

- Influenza virus

- S pneumoniae

- Staph aureus


What common pathogens are associated with exposure to water?

Legionella spp


What common pathogens are associated with poor dental hygiene?

Oral anaerobes


What common pathogens are associated with HIV?

- Pneumocystis jirovecii

- Strep pneumoniae

- Mycobaterium tuberculosis

- H influenzae


How is a CXR useful in pneumonia?

Helpful in diagnosis

- Presence/extent of infiltrate

- Presence of pleural effusion

- Follow clearing of infiltrate


When would you order a CT chest?

- Complicating factor

- Negative CXR with strong suspicion for pneumonia


What are other tests that can be used in diagnosis/management of pneumonia?

WBC count: indicate need for hospitalization (very high or very low)

Sputum Gram stain:

- Adequate lower respiratory tract specimen: fewer than 10 squamous epithelial cells and >25 PMNs per LPF

- Can identify organisms by characteristic appearance

Sputum culture

Blood culture (if admitted to hospital), low yield: 5-14%

Antigen tests: uine strep and legionella

PCR tests: Rapid flu, M TB, Legionella, Mycoplasma

Serology: mycoplasma, viruses, fungi


What is the pneumonia severity index (PSI)?

20 variables with points assigned

Severity classes I-V for point ranges with associated mortality rates 


What is the CURB 65 criteria?

- Confusion

- Urea > 7 mmol/L

- Respiratory rate > 30

- Blood pressure: SBP under 90 or DBP under 60

- Age > 65

Mortality rate:

1- 1.5%

2- 9.2%

3- 22%


How do you select antibiotics for CAP?

Strep pneumoniae: cephalosporin

Atypical pathogens: macrolide

- Evaluate risk factors for drug resistance (risk factors for community-acquired MRSA)

- Treatment should start as soon as possible


What is nosocomial pneumonia?


- Pneumonia development at least 48 hours after hospital admission


What is healthcare associated pneumonia?

- Transition between nosocomial and community acquired pneumonia

- Up to three months after health care episode (admitted for at least 2 days)

- Residence in NH

- IV antibiotics, chemo or wound care within 30 days

- Attended hemodialysis in hospital or clinic


What are common etiologies for healthcare associated pneumonia?

(Similar to nosocomial pneumonia)

Gram negative bacilli: 64%

- E coli

- Pseudomonas (21%)

- Klebsiella

- Enterobacter

Gram positives

- Staph aureus- most common single pathogen! (MRSA > 50%)


Complications of pneumonia?

- Pleural effusion – parapneumonic or empyema

- Lung abscess

- Metastatic infection

- Respiratory failure

- Septic shock

- Multiple organ failure


What immunocompromised patients/situations should be considered with pneumonia?

- HIV infection

- Organ transplantation: bone marrow and solid organs

- Malignancies: related to malignancy or its treatment (leukopenia, altered mentation, aspiration, emesis)

- Autoimmune diseases/Tx: steroids, anti-TNF


Nuances of pneumonia in immunocompromised host:

- Defenses

- Fever?


- Tx?

- Net state of immunosuppression” – host factors that contribute to infectious risk

- Fever may or may not be present

- Rate of progression of disease

- Radiographic pattern may be abnormal

- Aggressive diagnostic measures

---- Specific etiologic diagnosis is essential

---- Differential dx includes non-infectious processes

- Immediate treatment intervention


What etiologic causes of pneumonia or worrisome in the different stages of lung transplants?

Early (under 1 mo)

- Bacteria

- Aspiration

- Nosocomial pathogens

Middle (1-4 mo)

- Pneumocystic

- Aspergillus


Late (> 6 mo)

- Pneumocystis

- Granulomatous: nocardia, reactivation of fungi, mycobacteria


Epidemic of _____ is a looming threat to TB control efforts

Epidemic of diabetes mellitus is a looming threat to TB control efforts


What are risks for TB infection?

- Close contact of person with TB

- Persons from or frequent visitors to countries of high TB burden

- Congregate settings – residents and employees

- Health care workers

- Low income, drug/alcohol abuse, poor access to health care

- Infants, children, adolescents


What is MDR-TB?

Multi-drug resistant TB Resistance to both:

- Isoniazide

- Rifampin


What are characteristics of a latent TB infection (LTBI)?

- History of exposure to TB

- No symptoms

- Immune response to TB antigens

----Positive TST or

----Positive interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) – Quantiferon TB or T Spot TB

- Normal CXR