Pathoma/ICS Skin pathology Flashcards

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1
Q

What are the layers of the epidermis from surface to base?

A

1) Stratum Corneum
2) Stratum Lucidum
3) Stratum Granulosum
4) Stratum Spinosum
5) Stratum Basale

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2
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a flat lesion < 1 cm that is a well-circumscribed color change in skin color?

A

Macule

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3
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a macule > 1 cm?

A

Patch

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4
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a elevated solid skin lesion < 1 cm?

A

Papule

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5
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a papule > 1 cm?

A

Plaque

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6
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a small fluid-containing blister < 1 cm?

A

Vesicle

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7
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a large fluid-containing blister > 1 cm?

A

Bulla

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8
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a vesicle containing pus?

A

Pustule

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9
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a transient smooth papule or plaque?

A

Wheal

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10
Q

What dermatologic lesion is a flaking off of stratum corneum?

A

Scale

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11
Q

Hyperkeratosis is defined as the thickening of what epidermal layer?

A

Stratum corneum

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12
Q

What is defined as hyperkeratosis with retention of nuclei in the stratum corneum?

A

Parakeratosis

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13
Q

Hypergranulosis is defined as increased thickness of what epidermal layer?

A

Stratum granulosum

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14
Q

What is defined as epidermal accumulation of edematous fluid in intercellular spaces?

A

Spongiosis

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15
Q

What is defined as separation of epidermal cells?

A

Acantholysis

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16
Q

What is defined as epidermal hyperplasia?

A

Acanthosis

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17
Q

What presents with an intensely pruritic, oozing rash with vesicles and edema due to a type I hypersensitivity?

A

Atopic (eczematous) dermatitis

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18
Q

Atopic (eczematous) dermatitis is associated with what increased serum Immunoglobulin?

A

IgE

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19
Q

What presents with a pruritic, oozing rash with vesicles and edema due to a type IV HSR?

A

Allergic contact dermatitis

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20
Q

What is due to chronic inflammation of hair follicles and associated sebaceous glands, which secrete its contents through a holocrine mechanism?

A

Acne vulgaris

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21
Q

What type of hormone results in increased sebum production (and thus acne)?

A

Androgens

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22
Q

What bacteria causes acne by producing lipases that break down sebum, releasing proinflammatory fatty acids?

A

Propionibacterium (Cutibacterium) acnes

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23
Q

What vitamin derivative is used to treat acne vulgaris to reduce hyperkeratinization and sebum production?

A

Vitamin A

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24
Q

What is a characterized by well-circumscribed, salmon-colored plaques with silvery scale?

A

Psoriasis

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25
Q

Where does psoriasis typically presents on?

What are common associations with psoriasis?

What is psoriasis due to?

What HLA subtype is associated with psoriasis?

A

1) Extensor surfaces and the scalp
2) Nail pitting and arthritis
3) Excessive keratinocyte proliferation
4) HLA-C

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26
Q

Psoriasis is associated with what sign, which is pinpoint bleeding when scale is picked off?

A

Auspitz sign

27
Q

What inflammatory dermatitis presents as pruritic, planar, polygonal, purple papules?

A

Lichen planus

28
Q

Where does lichen planus most often present?

It often presents with reticular white lines on the surface, especially on oral mucosa, which is known as?

It is characterized histologically by inflammation of what junction which gives it a sawtooth like appearance?

A

1) Wrists, elbows, and oral mucosa
2) Wickham striae
3) Dermal-epidermal junction

29
Q

Lichen planus is an inflammatory dermatitis associated with what infection?

A

Hepatitis C infection

30
Q

What is an autoimmune inactivation of desmosomes between keratinocytes?

What is it due to?

What does it present with?

What occurs histologically?

A

1) Pemphigus vulgaris
2) IgG against desmoglein
3) Thin-walled blisters that rupture easily
4) Acantholysis

31
Q

What type of hypersensitivity reaction is pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid?

A

Type II HSR

32
Q

What is an autoimmune destruction of hemidesmosomes between basal cells and the underlying basement membrane?

What is it due to?

What does it present with?

How is it characterized histologically?

A

1) Bullous pemphigoid
2) IgG against hemidesmosome components (BP180)
3) Tense blisters with eosinophils that don’t rupture easily
4) Detachment of the basal cell layer from the basement membrane

33
Q

Which blistering skin disorder presents as pruritic vesicles and bullae that are grouped?

What is it due to?

What malabsorption syndrome is associated with?

A

1) Dermatitis herpetiformis
2) Deposition of IgA at the tips of dermal papillae
3) Celiac disease

34
Q

Which blistering skin disorder is characterized by a targetoid rash and bullae?

The targetoid appearance is due to?

It is commonly associated with what infections?

A

1) Erythema multiforme
2) Central epidermal necrosis, surrounded by erythema
3) HSV and Mycoplasma pneumoniae

35
Q

Erythema multiforme with lip/oral mucosal involvement and fever is termed?

It typically arises due to?

A

1) Stevens-Johnson syndrome

2) Adverse drug reaction

36
Q

When Stevens-Johnson syndrome involves > 30% of the body surface it is termed?

A

Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)

37
Q

What are benign squamous neoplasms, typically seen on the head, trunk, and extremities in the elderly?

A

Seborrheic keratoses

38
Q

What sign signals sudden onset of multiple seborrheic keratoses and suggests underlying malignancy?

A

Leser-Trelat sign

39
Q

Which skin disorders presents with epidermal hyperplasia and darkening of the skin (“velvet-like” skin)?

It is typically associated with resistance to?

A

1) Acanthosis nigricans

2) Insulin

40
Q

Which skin cancer is the most common cutaneous malignancy?

What is its major risk factor?

Where is the classic location for it?

A

1) Basal cell carcinoma
2) UV-B light
3) Upper lip

41
Q

What is characterized histologically by formation of keratin pearls?

What is its major risk factor?

Where is the classic location for it?

A

1) Squamous cell carcinoma
2) UV-B light
3) Lower lip

42
Q

What is a precursor lesion of squamous cell carcinoma?

It displays hyperplastic keratinocytes with cytologic atypia in what epidermal layer?

A

1) Actinic keratosis

2) Stratum basale layer

43
Q

Where are melanocytes located?

A

Basal layer of the epidermis

44
Q

Freckles (ephelides) are darker than surrounding skin due to increased number of?

A

Melanosomes

45
Q

What are benign neoplasm of melanocytes?

A

Nevus (mole)

46
Q

Which nevus presents at birth and often associated with hair?

A

Congenital nevi

47
Q

Melanoma is strongly associated with?

A

Sunlight exposure and dysplastic nevi

48
Q

What is the most important prognostic factor in predicting melanoma metastasis?

A

Depth of invasion

49
Q

What term describes localized melanocytic hyperplasia?

A

Lentigo

50
Q

Which infectious skin disorder is a superficial bacterial skin infection characterized by painful, non-itchy pustules and honey-colored crusting?

A

Impetigo

51
Q

Impetigo is most often due to what infection?

A

S. aureus or S. pyogenes

52
Q

What infection is associated with verrucae?

A

HPV

53
Q

Which infectious skin disorder presents as firm, pink, umbilicated papules?

What infection is it associated with?

It is characterized histologically by?

A

1) Molluscum contagiosum
2) Poxvirus
3) Cytoplasmic inclusions

54
Q

What is an inflammatory facial skin disorder characterized by erythematous papules and pustules, but no comedones?

It is associated with facial flushing in response to?

A

1) Rosacea

2) Alcohol, heat

55
Q

Phymatous rosacea can cause what bulbous deformation of the nose?

A

Rhinophyma

56
Q

What is a painful, raised inflammatory lesion of subcutaneous fat (panniculitis), usually on the anterior shins?

A

Erythema nodosum

57
Q

What vascular tumor is a benign, painful, red-blue tumor, formed from AV shunts under fingernails?

They arise from what cells?

A

1) Glomus tumor

2) Smooth muscle

58
Q

Xeroderma Pigmentosum is inherited in what fashion?

A

Autosomal recessive

59
Q

What is a common, chronic inflammatory disease that presents with a flaky, scaling, rash involving the scalp and eyebrows?

How does it most commonly present as in adults?

It is due to a hypersensitivity reaction to?

It is most severe in patients with conditions?

A

1) Seborrheic dermatitis
2) Dandruff
3) Malassezia
4) Parkinson’s Disease and HIV

60
Q

What is caused by a mutation in the filaggrin gene, resulting in dry, scaly skin?

A

Ichthyosis vulgaris

61
Q

What type of nevus is a flat, pigmented lesion with a white ring around it and is asymptomatic and never changes?

How are these acquired?

A

1) Halo nevus

2) Host immune response

62
Q

What painful nodule is most commonly seen on shins and is composed of regular spindle cells?

A

Dermatofibroma

63
Q

What is the best categorization of Erythema Nodosum?

A

Panniculitis

64
Q

What is the best categorization of psoriasis?

A

Chronic inflammatory dermatosis