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Flashcards in Drug Toxicity Deck (31)
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1
Q

What is the famous ANTI-MANIA DRUG use for BIPOLAR but not for depression?

A

LITHIUM

2
Q

What is the Therapeutic level of Lithium and what is the toxic level?

A

Therapeutic level: 0.6-1.2

Toxic level: ≥ 2

3
Q

What is the Drug used to treat Atrial Fibrillation (AFIB) and Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)?

A

(Digoxin) LanOXIN

4
Q

What is the Therapeutic range of Lanoxin what is the toxic level?

A

Therapeutic level: 0.5 - 2

Toxic level: ≥ 2

5
Q

Example of METHYLXANTINE DRUGS?

A

AMINOPHYLLINE

6
Q

What is the difference between THEOPHYLLINE and AMINOPHYLLINE?

A

AMINOPHYLLINE is a derivative of THEOPHYLLINE but still a METHYLXANTINE

7
Q

What is the Mechanism Of Action of AMINOPHYLLINE?

A

Airway Anti-Spasmodic drug but not a Bronchodilator (does not stimulate Beta-2). A Muscle Spasm Relaxant
Spasm = constrict

8
Q

Examples of Bronchodilator?

A

Epinephrine, Tarbutaline, Albuterol, Salbutamol

9
Q

What do you give when Bronchodilator does not work?

A

Aminophylline/Theophylline just to relax the Spasm then, give Bronchodilator

10
Q

What is the therapeutic range of AMINOPHYLLINE?

A

Therapeutic: 10 - 20

11
Q

What is the Mechanism Of Action of DILANTIN (Phenytoin)?

A

Anti-epileptic/Anticonvulsant

12
Q

What is the Therapeutic Range and Toxic Level of DILANTIN (Phenytoin)?

A

Therapeutic Range: 10 - 20

Toxic Level: ≥ 20

13
Q

Other examples of Anticonvulsant drugs

A
Carbamazepine
Benzodiazepine
Phenobarbital
Gabapentin
Diazepam
Levetiracetam
14
Q

Considered as a waste product in the breakdown of Red Blood Cells (RBC)?

A

BILIRUBIN

15
Q

Who has a normal HIGH LEVELS of BILIRUBIN?

A

NEWBORNS

16
Q

Why is it NORMAL for Newborns to have HIGH BILIRUBIN LEVELS?

A

Because of GREATER PRODUCTION and FASTER BREAKDOWN of RBC in the 1st few days of life

17
Q

what is the therapeutic ELEVATED LEVEL and TOXIC Level of BILIRUBIN in Newborns?

A

Elevated Level: 10 - 20

Toxic level: ≥ 20

18
Q

What is the highest level of BILIRUBIN in ADULT?

A

8

19
Q

At what Therapeutic Level of Bilirubin does the Doctor advice parents HOSPITALIZING Newborns and why?

A

14 - 15 because 15 is already halfway to toxicity and once it hits toxicity level, they could die.

20
Q

What do you call the BILIRUBIN IN THE BRAIN?

A

KERNICTERUS

21
Q

What happens in KERNICTERUS?

A

When Bilirubin crosses the Blood Brain Barrier, it goes in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF), in the Brain and in the Meninges

22
Q

what do you call the YELLOW COLOR cause by BILIRUBIN IN THE SKIN?

A

JAUNDICE

23
Q

What does Kernicterus causes when the Bilirubin goes up to 20 (toxic level) and gets inside the Brain?

A

ASEPTIC MENINGITIS
(A - without ; Septic - sepsis [infection])

ASEPTIC ENCEPHALITIS
(sterile encephalitis) = due to IRRITATION of the BILIRUBIN

24
Q

When does KERNICTERIC become lethal?

A

when Bilirubin goes above 20, the newborn could die

25
Q

What POSITION does the baby assumes when he has a bilirubin in the Brain or gone Kernicteric?

A

OPISTHOTONUS

26
Q

What happens to the baby in an Opisthotonus position?

A

The baby HYPEREXTEND due to the IRRITATION of the MENINGES by the BILIRUBIN and turns very RIGID

27
Q

What happens when the baby reaches level 15 of the Bilirubin Therapeutic Range with Hyperextension noted?

A

It becomes an EMERGENT that could be followed by KERNICTERUS

28
Q

In what POSITION do you place an OPISTHOTONIC Child?

A

SIDE-LYING (Sim’s)

29
Q

What is the difference between PATHOLOGIC JAUNDICE and PHYSIOLOGIC JAUNDICE?

A

PATHOLOGIC JAUNDICE = BILIRUBIN is HIGH at
BIRTH and Baby is YELLOW at BIRTH
PHYSIOLOGIC JAUNDICE = BILIRUBIN is NORMAL at
BIRTH and HIGH after 2-3 DAYS and Baby turns
YELLOW after the NEXT FEW DAYS

30
Q

SIGNS and SYMPTOMS of DIGOXIN TOXICITY?

A
V-isual disturbance; vomiting
A-norexia
N-ausea
D-iarrhea
A-bdominal cramps
31
Q

What is the ANTIDOTE for DIGOXIN TOXICITY?

A

DIGIBIND (Digoxin Immune IV)