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Flashcards in The Rule Of Tsar Nicholas II Deck (47)
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1
Q

When had opposition groups developed?

A
  • they had developed illegally during the rule of Alex III
2
Q

What were the main opposition groups?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • Liberals
  • Populists
  • Marxists
3
Q

What did Liberals demand?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • in 1894 liberal westernisers demanded Russia should be governed in a similar way to Western European Democracies
4
Q

How were Liberal ideas supported?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • Supported by the zemstva, and the revival of the zemstvo union in the mid 1890’s
  • 1904 Peter Struve founded the Union of Liberation demanding greater freedoms and justice for all Russians
5
Q

What were the aims of the Union of Liberation?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • wanted fairer land distribution for peasants, a representative constituent assembly and improved conditions for industrial workers.
6
Q

How would the aims of the Union of Liberation affect Tsarism if achieved?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • These would have diluted the authority of N2
7
Q

Who was Peter Struve? (6)

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • Struve was from a distinguished academic family in Perm.
  • initially Marxist but rejected these views in favour of liberalism
  • founded a liberal magazine
  • founded the Constitutional Democratic Party
  • opposed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917
  • lived in exile in Paris after 1917
8
Q

Who were the Kadets?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • wanted a constitutional monarchy
  • led by Paul Milyukov
  • an extension of the liberal movement
  • also known as the Constitutional Democrats
9
Q

Who was Paul Milkyukov? (6)

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • leader of the Kadets
  • was the intellectual arm of the liberal movement
  • served as foreign minister in the provisional government 1917
  • member of the intelligentsia
  • well known critic of the Tsar
  • founder of the Kadets
10
Q

Who were the Octobrists?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • individuals who displayed loyalty to the Tsar but wanted changes to the system of government
  • a more moderate liberal group
  • supported N2’s October Manifesto so were criticised by other revolutionary groups
11
Q

Who was Alexander Guchkov? (5)

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • an Octobrist
  • minister for war + navy in the provisional government
  • a wealthy industrialist
  • founder of Octobrists
  • respected Tsarism but still critiqued it
12
Q

Who was Michael Rodzianko? (6)

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • a wealthy Ukrainian landowner
  • a monarchist who used his position as president of the Duma to try and make links between the tsar and his subjects
  • warned Tsar of the dangers of an uprising in 1917 but was ignored
  • headed the Provisional Government
  • opposed Bolshevik take over and was forced to flee to Serbia
  • an Octobrist
13
Q

How serious was opposition to the Tsar from the Liberals?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • little threat
  • as they had a small number of people
  • mainly middle class and no organised political party
  • only had limited ways of expressing their concerns
  • little support from peasants so only limited influence on policies
14
Q

What did Populists argue for?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • argued that agricultural communes and co-operative workshops would provide a base for the Russian economy to develop without resorting to capitalism
15
Q

Why did the Populists initially not appear to be threatening in 1894?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • failed to mobilise large scale support
  • largely consisted of young intelligentsia who thought they could preach to peasants to convince them to change the way Russia was ruled.
  • however that had little success in rural communities and peasant insurrection did not materialise.
16
Q

Why was the emergence of the Socialist Revolutionaries important?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • because it marked a shift in attempts to represent the interests of the people in the new urban areas of Russia
17
Q

What did the SR’s focus on?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • developing from the populist movement the Socialist Revolutionaries focused on improving the living conditions of the poorest in society including the growing urban proletariat.
18
Q

When + who led the Socialist Revolutionary Party?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • formed in 1901

- led by intellectual Victor Chernov

19
Q

What happened to the SR’s in 1905?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • they split into a radical left wing and moderate right wing groups
20
Q

What did the radical left of the SR’s do?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • used direct action

- responsible for 2000 political killings from 1901 -1905 including Grand Duke Sergei and Vyacheslav Plehve

21
Q

Who was Grand Duke Sergei?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • fifth son of Alex II
  • brother to Alex III
  • uncle to N2
  • assassinated by the SR in 1905
22
Q

Who was Vyacheslav Plehve?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • widely unpopular minister of the interior (served from 1902 - 1904)
  • assassinated by the SR in 1904
23
Q

What did the moderate right of the SR’s do?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • worked with other parties and groups gathering support and momentum after the 1905 revolution.
24
Q

Who did the moderate right of the SR’s appeal to?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • appealed to peasants
25
Q

Who did the radical left of the SR’s appeal to ?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • industrial workers
26
Q

How serious was the threat of the Socialist Revolutionaries to N2?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • had the most support of all opposition parties despite their internal divisions
  • were the biggest threat before the October 1917 revolution
27
Q

What were Marx ideas ?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • believed the ultimate class struggle was that between the proletariat and the capitalists.
  • he believed a revolution would occur and proletariats would rule
  • the ultimate aim was the establishment of a classless society
28
Q

Who was Viktor Chernov? (7)

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • son of a former serf
  • deep interest in land reform
  • SR leader in the Duma
  • minister of agriculture in the provisional government
  • chairman of the constituent assembly
  • opposed Lenin and had to flee in exile
  • died in the USA
29
Q

What were the SD’s ideology based on?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • on the writings of Marx

- believed the proletariat could be educated to overthrow Russian Autocracy by revolution

30
Q

What party was formed in 1898?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • the All - Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in Minsk
31
Q

What were the All Russian Social Democratic Party influenced by?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • by an interpretation of Marx’s work made by George Plekhanov who emphasised the need to encourage working class consciousness.
32
Q

Why did some SD’s focus on more practical concerns?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • this is because few workers had the time or interest to engage with Marxist theory
  • instead focused on more practical concerns e.g. improving pay and lowering working hours
33
Q

What Did Lenin produce in 1901 and what idea did it outline?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • 1901 produced a pamphlet called What is to be Done?
  • outlined that a complete overthrow of the tsarist system of rule could be achieved by workers if they were led by a politically educated elite or vanguard.
34
Q

How much of a threat was Lenin’s pamphlet to N2?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • not that threatening

- only threatening on paper as in reality had little impact

35
Q

Why was Lenin’s pamphlet not threatening because it caused division with the SD’s?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • Lenin’s views caused a division in the SD movement between the Mensheviks and Bolsheviks.

So misalignment of views led to slow decision making and little impact as they weren’t able to coordinate their efforts.

36
Q

What stance did the Mensheviks have on the direction SD movement to take place?
Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • wanted to continue to work for political, economic and social change within the system
37
Q

What stance did the Bolsheviks have on the the direction the SD movement should go in?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • argued that workers were capable of being sufficiently politically educated to create a revolution.
38
Q

Why did Lenin’s pamphlet pose little threat due to N2’s policy in 1902?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • introduced legal workers interest groups (Zubatov Unions)
  • idea was that workers would be able to negotiate with state officials to improve their plight.
  • this attempted to quell worker fears about deteriorating working and living conditions.
39
Q

Why were Zubatov unions abandoned?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A

Became unruly + unmanageable so abandoned in summer 1903.

40
Q

Who was George Plekhanov?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • from a noble family
  • became a populist
  • founded the first Marxist party in Russia
  • initially supported Bolsheviks but rejected Lenin’s ideals on party discipline in 1905
41
Q

Who was Sergei Zubatov?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • revolutionary who became an informer
  • joined the Okhrana and became the head
  • 1901 initiated the Zubatov Unions but the Minister of the Interior (Plehve) disbanded them in 1903 + Zubatov was sacked.
  • killed himself in 1917 when the Tsar abdicated
42
Q

Why + when was Lenin exiled to Siberia?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • because of his radical pronouncements and associations with prominent revolutionaries
  • exiled in 1897
43
Q

When did Lenin join the SD’s ?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • in 1900
44
Q

What happened when Lenin returned to Russia in 1905?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • witnessed the 1905 revolution but was not actively involved
45
Q

How did Lenin maintain his influence while in exile?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • through his writings
46
Q

Why were the Bolsheviks considered a limited threat?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • police did not report Bolsheviks as a threat to state security
  • before 1914 no of members were between 5000-10000.
47
Q

Why were the Bolsheviks a threat?

Opposition to N2 (1894-1905)

A
  • carried out armed robberies of banks to gain funds