A & P Exam 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A & P Exam 2 Deck (369):
0

What type of tissue is in the heart?

Epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

1

What kind of muscle is in the heart?

Cardia: involuntary, striated

2

Can cardiac muscle contract without external stimulation?

Yes

3

Groups of cardiac muscle cells can adopt the contraction rate of the ...... cell in the group

Most rapid

4

Pumps blood through vascular system
Delivers O2 and nutrients to cells
Transports hormones
Delivers antibodies
Removes waste products

Heart

5

How is the heart positioned in the chest?

In the center, a little to the left

6

The space between the two pleural cavities that contain the lungs
Surrounded by loose connective tissue

Mediastinum

7

What else besides the heart is in the mediastinum?

Trachea, esophagus, vascular structures, nerves, lymphatic structures

8

The mediastinum is fenestrated (holes) in what 3 species?

Dog, horse, sheep

9

Thin layer of serosal membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and covers the organs in it

Pleura

10

What types of pleura are there?

Visceral and parietal

11

Excessive fluid in a body cavity

Effusion

12

Excessive fluid in tissue

Edema

13

Blood in thoracic cavity

Hemothorax

14

What are the 4 layers of the heart?

Pericardium
Epicardium
Myocardium
Endocardium

15

Outermost layer of heart
Fibrous connective tissue
Protects the heart
Loosely attaches the heart to the diaphragm

Fibrous Pericardium

16

Parietal layer of the pericardium
Fused to the fibrous pericardium

Serous pericardium

17

Fluid filled cavity between the parietal and visceral layers of the serous pericardium

Pericardial space

18

Visceral layer of the serous pericardium

Epicardium

19

Excessive amount of pericardial fluid

Pericardial effusion

20

What are some causes of pericardial effusion?

Infection, inflammation, hemorrhage

21

Excessive pericardial fluid builds up and the heart becomes unable to expand

Cardiac tamponade

22

What is the TX for pericardial effusion?

Pericardiocentesis

23

Heart wall located inside the sac formed by the pericardium
Thickest layer of hear tissue

Myocardium

24

Membranous lining between the myocardium and chambers of the heart

Endocardium

25

The top or cranial portion of the heart

Base

26

The point or caudal portion of the heart
Top of the left ventricle
Points to the left

Apex

27

The largest and most visible parts of the atria from the outside of the heart

Auricles

28

What does auricle mean?

Ear

29

Long and narrow, thick walled, terminates at the apex of the heart

Left ventricle

30

Broader surface area, wraps around the left ventricle

Right ventricle

31

Borders of the ventricles are externally separated by what structure?
Contains fats and blood vessels that are part of the coronary circulation of the heart

Interventricular sulci (grooves)

32

What structure externally separates the atria from the ventricles?

Coronary groove

33

The myocardium (muscle of the heart) has its own blood supply called....
They branch off the aorta and supply oxygenated blood to the heart
Located in the coronary groove and Interventricular grooves

Coronary arteries

34

Coronary arteries branch into: arterioles > capillaries > venules > cardiac veins > ....... ........ which empties into the right atrium

Coronary sinus

35

These arteries emerge from the external rig ventricle as the pulmonary trunk
They quickly divide into right and left ........ arteries traveling to each lung

Pulmonary arteries

36

The pulmonary arteries emerge from the external right ventricle as the .......... ..........
This structures is larger and more curved than the vena cavae

Pulmonary trunk

37

The largest artery in the body

Aorta

38

The walls of the aorta are the thinnest or thickest of any blood vessel?

Thickest

39

The aorta emerges from the ....... ........ into the aortic arch

Left ventricle

40

The brachiocephalic trunk and left subclavian artery branch off the ...... just after the ....... valve

Aorta
Aortic

41

What are the chambers of the heart

Right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, left ventricle

42

Which chamber of the heart has the thickest walls to aid in forceful contraction?

Left ventricle

43

Do the valves of the heart work one way or both ways?

One way

44

The right atrioventricular valve is also called what?
It has 3 flaps
It connects the right atrium to the right ventricle

Tricuspid valve

45

The left atrioventricular valve is also known as what? (2)
It has 2 flaps
It connects the left atrium to the left ventricle

Mitral or bicuspid

46

What are the 2 semilunar valves?

Pulmonary valve: 3 flaps
Aortic valve: 3 flaps

47

What does lunar mean?

Moon

48

What valve in the heart has only 2 flaps?

Left AV, mitral, bicuspid

49

Valves have these that originate from a fibrous ring of the valve

Flaps

50

Increased blood pressure in the chambers during contraction forces flaps to

Open

51

The AV flaps are prevented from bending back into the atrium by the

Chordae tendinae

52

Chordae tendinae connect the free edges of the AV flaps to the ......... muscles.
These muscles attach to the Interventricular septum

Papillary muscles

53

What 2 structures are the papillary muscles connected to?

Chordae tendinae and Interventricular septum

54

Band of tissue present in the right ventricle that originates at the Interventricular septum
Provides additional structural support to the wall of the right ventricle
Acts as a primary conduction path
Not attached to flaps of tricuspid valve

Moderator band

55

What chamber of the heart is the moderator band located in?

The right ventricle

56

This type of vessel leaves the heart and carries blood to systemic circulation or away from the heart

Arteries

57

This type of vessel carries blood from systemic circulation to the heart

Vessels

58

Nutrient and oxygen rich blood leaves the heart through the

Aorta

59

The aorta branches into smaller

Arteries

60

Arteries branch into

Arterioles

61

Arterioles branch into

Capillaries

62

At the capillary level, nutrients and O2 are exchanged for

Waste and CO2

63

Capillaries branch into

Venules

64

Venules branch into

Veins

65

This vein carries blood from the caudal part of the body to the right atrium of the heart

Caudal vena cava

66

This vein carries blood from the cranial part of the body to the right atrium

Cranial vena cava

67

The cranial and caudal vena cava carry what type of blood to the right side of the heart?

Deoxygenated

68

Veins typically carry deoxygenated blood with these 2 exceptions

Pulmonary veins
Umbilical vein

69

This vein carries oxygenated blood to the heart

Pulmonary vein

70

This vein carries oxygenated blood to the fetus

Umbilical vein

71

The heart pumps deoxygenated blood through the .......... ........ to the lungs to pick up O2.

Pulmonary artery

72

Oxygenated blood enters the left side of the heart through the

Pulmonary vein

73

Arteries typically carry what type of blood?

Oxygenated

74

2 arteries do NOT carry oxygenated blood

Pulmonary artery
Umbilical artery

75

This artery carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart to the lungs

Pulmonary artery

76

This artery carries deoxygenated blood away from the fetus

Umbilical artery

77

What chamber of the heart do the cranial and caudal vena cava empty into?

Right atrium

78

From the right atrium, blood flows to which chamber?

Right ventricle

79

From the right ventricle where does the blood go?

Lungs via the pulmonary artery

80

From the pulmonary arteries, blood passes through branching vessels to the pulmonary capillaries of the ...., where O2 exchange takes place

Alveoli

81

Where does O2 exchange take place?

Pulmonary capillaries of the alveoli

82

Is the blood in the pulmonary veins oxygenated?

Yes

83

From the lungs where does the blood go?
What vessel carries the blood there?

Left atrium
Pulmonary vein

84

Where does the blood go from the left atrium?

Left ventricle

85

From the left ventricle, where does the blood go?

To the body via the aorta

86

These arteries, which branch from the aorta, deliver oxygenated blood to the lungs

Bronchial arteries

87

What is the valve that is located between the right atrium and right ventricle?

Right AV or tricuspid

88

What valve is between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery?

Pulmonary valve

89

What valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle?

Left AV, mitral, bicuspid

90

What valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta?

Aortic valve

91

Problems with the right side of the heart cause blood to backup into the caudal vena cava which causes

Ascites, abdomen fills with fluid

92

Problems with the left side of the heart cause blood to backup where?

Into the lungs

93

Fluid in the lungs

Pulmonary edema

94

This type of pulmonary edema is caused by left heart failure
It is perihilar and symmetrical

Cardiogenic

95

Each complete contraction and relaxation of the heart is called a

Cardia cycle

96

What are the 2 main parts of the cardiac cycle?

Systole
Diastole

97

Part of cardiac cycle in which the heart is relaxed

Diastole

98

Atria relax and fill with blood to be ejected during systole

Atrial diastole

99

Ventricles relax and fill with blood to be ejected during the next systolic contraction

Ventricular diastole

100

Heart muscle contracts

Systole

101

Atria contract and blood is ejected from the atria to the ventricles

Atrial systole

102

Ventricles contract and blood is ejected from the ventricles to the arteries

Ventricular systole

103

Blood flow through the heart starts with atrial and ventricular .......
The AV valves are ...... And the semilunar valves are ........

Diastole
AV: open
Semilunar: closed

104

During atrial ...... the contraction of the atria ejects even more blood into the ventricles

Systole

105

There is a slight ...... between atrial systole and ventricular systole

Delay

106

When the ventricles enter systole, it causes the AV valves to ...... And the semilunar valves to .....

AV: shut
Semilunar: open

107

When the ventricles stop contracting and enter diastole, the semilunar valves ......

Shut

108

The pressure in the ventricles drops, allowing ....... to open

AV valves

109

What is unique about cardiac muscle cells?

They contract without any external stimulation

110

Groups of cardiac muscle cells adopt the contraction rate of the

Most rapid cell in the group

111

Does the heart need nervous input for the muscle cells to contract?

No

112

What does the nervous system modify?

Contraction rate and strength

113

The impulse for a heartbeat comes from where?

Sinoatrial node

114

Specialized area of cardiac muscle cells located in the right atrium deep to the endocardium
Pacemaker
Generates electrical impulses that triggers repeated beating of the heart
Contraction rate of the muscle cells in this area is faster than those in the walls of the atria or ventricles, therefore it "sets the pace"

Sinoatrial node (SA node)

115

Charge inside the cell is different than the charge outside the cell. This is called

Membrane potential

116

The inside of the cell is more negatively charged than the outside of the cell
There is more ...... outside the cell and more ....... inside the cell

Outside: sodium
Inside: potassium

117

Sodium channels open causing sodium to flow in
As these positively charged ions enter the cell, this makes the charge inside the cell more positive
The charge inside the cell has now changed from net negative to net positive
This change is charge is called

Depolarization

118

Depolarization of cardiac cells in the .... node generates an electrical impulse which travels across the atria to the AV node

SA node

119

This causes contraction of the cardiac cells

Depolarization

120

The ...... node will then depolarize and generate an electrical impulse which travels down the bundle of His and up the purkinje fibers

AV node

121

This allows for systole of the heart

Depolarization

122

Soon after sodium channels open, they close
Now potassium channels open
Since there is more potassium inside the cell, it will flow out
As these positively charged ions leave the cell, this changes the charge back to net negative charge inside the cell
This is called

Repolarization

123

When the cells are repolarizing, the heart is in

Diastole

124

When sodium and potassium are on opposite sides of the cell than they were originally, this pump will pump 3 sodium ions out of the cell at the same time it pumps 2 potassium ions back into the cells
Now the cell is ready to depolarize again

Sodium/potassium pump

125

When sodium channels allow sodium to rush into the cell, these channels also also open in the sarcolemma (plasma membrane) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER)

Calcium

126

The increase of calcium in the cells allows for ...... filaments to bind to ...... filaments and slide across each other, shortening the cell and causing contraction of the cell

Myosin and actin

127

The impulse from the SA node travels quickly down the muscle fibers to the ...... node located in the interatrial septum

Atrioventricular node

128

From the AV node, electrical impulses spread through the ..........
These are fibers in the ventricles that travel down the Interventricular septum to the bottom of the ventricles

Bundle of His

129

These fibers carry impulses from the Bundle of His up into the ventricular myocardium

Purkinje fibers

130

Impulse also spread across this from the Bundle of His

Moderator band

131

Ventricle contraction of systole begins at the .... of the heart and travels to the .....

Starts at apex up to base

132

After ......... systole, AV valves snap shut and semilunar valves pushed open
Blood is ejected from the ventricles into the pulmonary artery and aorta

Ventricular

133

This sound is heard at the closure of the AV valves at the beginning of the ventricular systole

"Lub": S1

134

Mitral valve is loudest where?

L side of chest

135

Tricuspid valve is best heard where?

R side of heart

136

This normal heart sound is at the closure of the semilunar valves at the beginning of ventricular diastole

"Dub": S2

137

The S2 sound (dub) is best heard where?

L side of chest

138

The only two heart sounds heard in small animals are

S1 and S2

139

These heart sounds can only be heard in large animals along with S1 and S2

S3 and S4

140

Heart sound heard in large animals
Sound of rapid ventricular filling

S3

141

Heart sound heard in large animals
Sound of contraction of atria

S4

142

There are several bypasses in the fetal circulation, why?

The fetus receives oxygenated, filtered blood from the mother through the placenta.
Keeps most blood out of pulmonary circulation and liver circulation

143

Oxygenated blood flows from the placenta through the

umbilical vein

144

What other vein besides the umbilical vein in the body carries oxygenated blood?

Pulmonary vein

145

In the fetus: Oxygenated blood from the umbilical vein flows through the liver and this structure which allows some blood to bypass the liver into the caudal vena cava.

Ductus venosus

146

In the fetus: most of the blood from the right atrium can flow where to bypass the lungs?

Directly into the left atrium through the foramen ovale

147

In the fetus: blood from the pulmonary artery may flow into the lungs or directly into the aorta through another type of bypass known as the

ductus arteriosus

148

In the fetus: deoxygenated blood is sent back to the placenta through the

umbilical arteries

149

After birth, the ductus venosus constricts and becomes the

ligamentum venosum

150

After birth, the foramen ovale closes and becomes the

fossa ovalis

151

After birth, the ductus arteriosus closes and becomes the

ligamentum arteriosus

152

If the foramen ovale stays patent in the newborn the condition is called

atrial septal defect

153

With an atrial septal defect, blood will shunt into the right atrium, causing a volume overload to the right atrium, right ventricle, and pulmonary vasculature, which can sometimes lead to

pulmonary hypertension

154

Atrial septal defect can also can

generalized cyanosis

155

If the ductus arteriosus remains patent in the newborn is called what?

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

156

Patent ductus arteriosus can lead to

left side heart failure with pulmonary edema

157

Why would fetal blood bypass the liver?

Liver filters toxins and the blood has already been filtered by the dam's liver

158

If the ductus venosus stays patent in the newborn, what happens?

Blood is not filtered by the liver causing a build up of toxins.

159

If the ductus venosus stays patent in the newborn, what is this condition called?

Portosystemic shunt (liver shunt)

160

The amount of blood that leaves the heart per minute

cardiac output

161

Cardiac output depends on what 2 things?

Stroke volume and heart rate

162

The amount of blood ejected with each heartbeat (cardiac contraction) dependent upon: strength of contraction; size of heart; blood pressure; blood volume

Stroke volume

163

Frequency of heart contractions

Heart rate

164

SV (stroke volume) X HR (heart rate) =

CO (cardiac output)

165

What would result in increased CO (cardiac output)?

Increased HR or increased SV

166

Increased HR can be a result of what nervous system?

Sympathetic nervous system

167

What would result in decreased cardiac output?

Decrease in stroke volume and or heart rate

168

What nervous system causes the HR to decrease?

Parasympathetic

169

When a chamber of the heart is depolarizing, it is in what?

Systole, contracting

170

When a chamber of the heart is repolarizing, it is in what?

Diastole, rest

171

Force of contraction

inotropy

172

Medications that increase the force of cardiac contractions are termed:

Positive inotropes

173

Medications that weaken the force of cardiac contractions are termed:

Negative inotropes

174

Rate of contraction

Chronotrophy (chronotracking for races)

175

These drugs may change the HR by affecting nerves controlling the heart or by changing the rhythm produced by the SA node

Chronotropic drugs

176

What condition would you use a positive inotrope for? (increases strength of heart contraction)

heart failure

177

What condition would you use a negative inotrope for? (decreases strength of heart contraction)

high bp

178

Medications that increase HR

positive chronotropes

179

What are 2 examples of positive chronotropes? (increase HR)

atropine, epinephrine

180

Medications that decrease HR

Negative chronotropes

181

When would negative chronotropic drugs be used? (decreases HR)

Increased HR, heart failure

182

Increased filling of the heart (increased pre-load) results in increased force of cardiac contraction and increased stroke volume.

Starling's Law

183

Instrument which measures electrical current using electrodes attached to skin

Electrocardiograph

184

Because cardiac contractions are the result of _______, an instrument the detects this may be used to measure the electrical activity of the heart

electrical currents

185

What wave of the EKG does this represent: depolarization of the atria

P wave

186

What wave of the EKG does this represent: waves created by ventricular depolarization, atrial repolarization is taking place as well

QRS complex

187

What wave of the EKG does this represent: repolarization of the ventricles

T wave

188

Blood in the systemic circulation is under higher or lower pressure than blood in the pulmonary or coronary circulation?

Higher - more pressure is needed to carry blood throughout the body

189

Blood in what encounters more resistance to flow

systemic circulation

190

What is the largest artery in the body, with the largest diameter and thickest walls of any blood vessel

Aorta

191

What are the 3 layers of the arterial walls?

Outer fibrous layer
Middle smooth muscle layer
Endothelium

192

Which two arteries have a middle layer that contains more elastic fibers than muscle fibers?
This allows vessels to stretch slightly as they receive high-pressure blood from ventricles

Aorta and Pulmonary arteries

193

What part of the circulatory system does not have a muscle layer in the walls?

Capillaries

194

Since venous blood is under lower pressure than arterial blood, vein has ______ walls than arteries

thinner

195

What structure in veins ensure that blood travels only in the direction of the heart

Valves

196

In the cat, the left subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries branch of the

aorta

197

In the cat, the right subclavian branches of the

brachiocephalic artery

198

Subclavian arteries travel toward the

thoracic limbs

199

In the cat, the carotid arteries branch off the

right subclavian artery

200

The main trunk of the aorta arches dorsally then travels

caudally

201

The main trunk of the aorta splits at the hind limbs into the

external and internal iliac arteries

202

This artery emerges at the caudal aorta

Coccygeal artery

203

These veins carry blood to the cranial vena cava then back into the heart

Jugular veins

204

Veins in the hind limbs merge into the right and left

internal and external iliac veins

205

This vein is on the craniomedial aspect of the forelimb. Used for IV catheter placement

Cephalic vein

206

Vein on the lateral aspect of the hind limb. Can be used for blood draw on dogs and ferrets

Saphenous

207

Vein on the medial aspect of the hind limb. Used for venipuncture in cats

Femoral vein

208

Veins on the ventral aspect of each side of the neck in the jugular groove, close the the carotid arteries

Jugular veins

209

Care must be taken to avoid accidental injection into the carotid artery, esp in what species?

Equine

210

This vein is also called the "milk vein". Easily seen in lactating dairy cattle on the ventral aspect of each side of the abdomen. Thin-walled, superficial, prone to hematoma formation - DO NOT USE!!

Caudal epigastric vein

211

Vein on the ventral midline of the tail. Used for venipuncture in ruminants, lizards, and small rodents.

Coccygeal vein

212

The cranial vena cava is used for venipuncture in what 2 species?

Pigs and ferrets

213

What is the primary function of the respiratory system?

Bring O2 into the body and take CO2 out

214

Phonation, regulation of body temp, regulation of acid-base balance, sense of smell.
These are all functions of what system?

Respiratory

215

Part of the respiratory system that includes structures from nares to trachea

Upper respiratory tract

216

Part of the respiratory system that includes structures from the bronchi to the alveoli

Lower respiratory tract

217

The respiratory system works in conjunction with what other system?

Cardiovascular

218

This structure of the upper resp tract is the external opening of the respiratory tube. They lead to the nasal passages

Nares (nostrils)

219

Structures of the upper resp tract between the nostrils and the pharynx

Nasal Passages

220

Structure of the upper resp tract that separates the left and right nasal passage

nasal septum

221

2 sets of thin, scroll-like bones in each nasal passage covered by epithelium. There are R, L, dorsal, ventral

Turbinates

222

The nasal turbinates divide each nasal passage into 3 main passageways called

Dorsal, middle, and ventral meatus

223

The 4th meatus is located on either side of the nasal septum and is continuous with the other 3 meatuses

common nasal meatus

224

What type of epithelial tissue lines the nasal passages?

Ciliated Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

225

Cilia project from the cell surfaces up into a layer of mucus and beat causing the mucus to move toward the:

pharynx where it can be swallowed or coughed up

226

Mucus is secreted by what 2 cells/glands in the nasal passages?

Mucous glands and Goblet cells

227

Air in the nasal passages is warmed by what?

blood flowing through blood vessels just beneath the nasal epithelium

228

Air in the nasal passages is humidified by what?

mucus and other fluids on the epithelial surface

229

Turbinates do what?

increase surface area and filter air

230

Particles do not readily pass through the air but become trapped in the

mucous layer

231

Ciliated outpouchings of the nasal passages contained within spaces in certain skull bones

Paranasal Sinuses or sinuses

232

The 2 sinuses are located within the frontal bones. They are common in most species

Frontal sinuses

233

These 2 sinuses are located within the maxillary bones. They are common in most species

Maxillary sinuses

234

Some animals, including humans, have two more sinuses called

sphenoid and ethmoidal sinuses

235

The openings from the sinuses into the nasal passages can swell shut or become plugged with inflammatory debris as a result of allergies, infections, tumors, etc. Fluids in the sinus have nowhere to go and the resulting buildup of pressure is very painful. Tx: antibiotics, decongestants, sx

Sinusitis

236

Structure in the upper resp tract. Common passageway for respiratory and digestive systems

Pharynx

237

This structure separates the nasal passages from the oral cavity

Hard palate

238

Respiratory passageway of the pharynx, dorsal

nasopharynx

239

Digestive passageway of the pharynx, ventral

oropharynx

240

This structure divides the pharynx into the dorsal and ventral pharynx

soft palate

241

Caudal end of pharynx opens dorsally into the _____ and ventrally into the _____

Esophagus
Larynx

242

Congenital defect of the hard palate, tissue does not completely close

cleft palate

243

Congenital defect of the soft palate

elongated soft palate

244

What happens if the soft palate is too long?

soft palate gets trapped in the larynx obstructing airflow

245

What breeds is the elongated soft palate common in?

Brachycephalic breeds

246

What can be done to fix elongated soft palate?

Surgically remove excess soft palate tissue

247

What controls actions of the muscles around the pharynx

reflexes

248

What 2 structures work together to prevent swallowing from interfering with breathing and vice versa?

Larynx and pharynx

249

Does breathing stop when we swallow?

Yes

250

Short irregular tube connecting the pharynx with the trachea. Composed of segments of cartilage that are connected to each other and surrounding tissues by muscles. Supported by hyoid apparatus.

Larynx

251

Larynx cartilage: single, leaf-shaped cartilage; projects forward from the ventral portion of the larynx

Epiglottis

252

During swallowing, this structure is pulled back to cover the opening of the larynx

epiglottis

253

Larynx cartilage: paired cartilages; form boundaries of the glottis along with the vocal cords

Arytenoid cartilages

254

Opening of the larynx

glottis

255

Larynx cartilage: Adam's apple, largest cartilage in the larynx

thyroid cartilage

256

Larynx cartilage: ring shaped cartilage, most caudal

cricoid cartilage

257

Functions of what structure: voice production; prevention of foreign material being inhaled; control airflow to and from the lungs

larynx

258

2 connective tissue bands attached to the arytenoid cartilages. Stretched across lumen of larynx parallel to each other. Vibrate as air passes over them

Vocal cords

259

Muscles attache to the _______ cartilages control the tension of the vocal cords

arytenoid

260

complete relaxation opens the glottis wide. What does this produce?

no sound

261

Tightening the tension of the vocal cords produces

higher-pitched sounds

262

Lessening the tension of the vocal cords produces

lower-pitched sounds

263

During swallowing, ______________ __________ pull the larynx forward and fold the epiglottis back over its opening

muscle contractions

264

Short, wide tube that extends from the larynx into the thorax. Divides into the 2 main bronchi that enter the lungs.

Trachea

265

When the trachea divides into the 2 main bronchi that enters the lungs. What is this called?

Bifurcation

266

What type of muscle is found on the dorsal side of the trachea?

smooth muscle

267

What type of cartilage makes up the rings in the trachea?

Hyaline cartilage

268

What type of epithelium lines the trachea?

ciliated epithelium

269

Cilia in the trachea move trapped material toward the

larynx

270

What shape are the rings of hyaline cartilage in the trachea of most species?

C-shaped

271

Which species have complete tracheal rings?

birds & reptiles

272

What causes a collapsing trachea?

weakened cartilage rings

273

In what animals is a collapsing trachea common?

toy breeds of dogs

274

What is the Tx for a collapsing trachea?

weight loss, restrict activity, use harness instead of collar, bronchodilators, cough suppressants, sx

275

What structures are part of the lower resp tract?

bronchi, bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveoli

276

Air passages that lead from the bronchi to the alveoli

bronchial tree

277

R & L primary bronchus formed by the bifurcation of the trachea

bronchi

278

Do the bronchi contain cartilage?

yes

279

Each bronchus divides into smaller bronchi, which divide into even smaller bronchi, and then tiny

bronchioles

280

Can the diameter of the bronchi and bronchioles be adjusted?

Yes, they contain smooth muscle fibers in the walls

281

What nervous system controls smooth muscle fibers in the wall of the bronchial tree?

Autonomic nervous system

282

What effect does the sympathetic nervous system have on the airways?

Dilates them

283

Bronchial smooth muscle relaxation.
Aids respiratory effort during intense physical activity.

Bronchodilation

284

Bronchial smooth muscle partially contracts. Reduces size of air passage. Irritants in inhaled air can cause this.

Bronchoconstriction

285

Bronchioles subdivide into _________ which end in ____________

Alveolar ducts
Alveoli

286

Do bronchioles and alveolar ducts contain cartilage?

No

287

These are the smallest air passageways. They are microscopic and end in groups of alveoli

Alveolar ducts

288

Alveoli are arranged like what?

bunches of grapes

289

Groups of alveoli are called

alveolar sacs

290

Tiny, thin-walled sacs composed of simple squamous epithelium.

Alveoli

291

Alveoli are surrounded by networks of _______ composed of simple squamous epithelium

Capillaries

292

Do alveoli contain muscle or cartilage to prevent them from collapsing when air moves in and out during breathing?

No

293

Alveoli are lined with fluid that contains _________ which reduces surface tension and prevents alveoli from collapsing as air moves in and out

surfactant

294

What is the site of external respiration?

Alveoli

295

Exchange of O2 & CO2 between the air inhaled into the lungs and the blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries

External respiration

296

Exchange of O2 & CO2 between the blood in the systemic capillaries and all the cell and tissues of the body

internal respiration

297

O2 and CO2 movement from higher concentration to lower concentration is an example of what?

simple diffusion

298

Hemoglobin that is carrying oxygen. One oxygen molecule is associated with each iron molecule.

Oxyhemoglobin

299

Hemoglobin that has released its oxygen.

Deoxyhemoglobin

300

What influences the ability of the hemoglobin molecule to carry oxygen? (4)

pH, temperature, O2 & CO2 levels

301

CO2 diffuses into RBCs & is transformed into

carbonic acid

302

What is the relative pH of venous blood compared to arterial blood?

more acidic

303

What vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

Pulmonary artery (splits into L & R pulmonary arteries -> pulmonary arterioles -> capillaries

304

Oxygenated blood returns to the left side of the heart via the

pulmonary veins

305

Pulmonary arteries bringing deoxygenated blood to the lungs for gas exchange with the alveoli

Pulmonary circulation

306

Bronchial arteries arise from the aorta and supply O2 to the parenchyma (tissue) of the lung itself.

bronchial circulation

307

The tissue of the lung itself

Parenchyma

308

This part of the lung lies directly on the cranial surface of diaphragm. It is in the caudal part of the thoracic cavity.

Base

309

This part of the lung lies in the cranial portion of the thoracic cavity

Apex

310

The lateral surface of each lung is convex or concave?

convex

311

In the cat, dog, cow, goat, sheep, and pig, name the lobes of the left and right lungs

Left lung: cranial & caudal
Right lung: cranial, middle, caudal & accessory

312

What species has 1 lobe on the left lung, and a main and accessory lobe on the right lung.

Horse

313

_____ are distinguished by the major branches of the bronchi

Lobes

314

Small, well-defined area on medial side of lung where airways, blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves enter and leave the lung.

Hilus

315

This is the only area of the lung that is attached to the body

Hilus

316

What is the dorsal boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Thoracic vertebrae

317

What are the lateral boundaries of the thoracic cavity?

Ribs & intercostal muscles

318

What is the ventral boundary of the thoracic cavity?

sternum

319

What is the caudal boundary of the thoracic cavity?

Diaphragm

320

The area between the lungs is called

mediastinum

321

What lives in the mediastinum?

heart, trachea, esophagus, blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic structures

322

The thin membrane that lines the thoracic cavity and covers the organs & structures in the thorax

Pleura

323

The pleural layer that covers thoracic organs and structures

Visceral layer

324

The pleural layer that lines the cavity

parietal layer

325

space between the 2 pleural layers is filled with a small amount of

pleural fluid

326

What is it called when there is too much fluid in the pleural space?

Pleural effusion

327

What are some causes of pleural effusion?

trauma, infection, neoplasia

328

Presence of air in the thorax; this buildup of air puts pressure on the lung, so it cannot expand as much as it normally does when you take a breath resulting in a collapsed lung. What is this condition called?

Pneumothorax

329

A collapsed lung is called

atelectasis

330

Causes of pneuomothorax

penetrating wound into thorax
trauma to airways/lungs

331

TX for pneumothorax

thoracocentesis, chest tube

332

Pressure within the thorax in negative with respect to atmospheric pressure, therefore a partial _____ exists within the thorax

vacuum

333

Is the the pressure within the thorax positive or negative?

negative

334

The vacuum in the thorax does what?

pulls lungs tight out against the thoracic wall

335

This type of pressure helps draw blood through veins and into the atria

negative intrathoracic

336

Lungs follow passively as movements of the _____ ____ and ________ alternately enlarge and reduce the volume of the thorax.

Thoracic wall
Diaphragm

337

The process of drawing air into the lungs

inhalation

338

What are the 2 main muscles of inspiration?

External intercostal muscles
Diaphragm

339

Thin, dome-shaped muscle sheet with a right and left crus; forms caudal boundary of thorax; separates thorax from abdomen

Diaphragm

340

What species don't have a diaphragm?

birds, reptiles

341

process of pushing air out of lungs

exhalation

342

What are the 2 main expiratory muscles?

Internal intercostal muscles & abdominal muscles

343

Volume of air inspired and expired during one breath (ml/breath)

Tidal volume

344

Tidal volume = ___ml/kg

10

345

What is tidal volume used to determine?

size of bag on anesthesia machine

346

Bag size = _____ x tidal volume

5-6

347

What sizes do bags come in for the anesthesia machine?

1/2 L, 1 L, 2 L, 3 L

348

Is it better to have a bag too small or too big on an anesthesia machine?

too big

349

volume of air inspired and expired during 1 min of breathing

Minute Volume

350

MV (ml/min) =

TV (tidal volume) x breaths/min

351

volume of air remaining in the lungs after maximum expiration. Lungs cannot be completely emptied of air

Residual volume

352

Are the respiratory muscles smooth or skeletal?

Skeletal

353

Is breathing voluntary or involuntary?

involuntary but can be overriden

354

Breathing is controlled by an area in the ______ _____ of the brain stem known as the ______ _____

Medulla oblongata
Respiratory center

355

Within the ______ _____ are individual control centers for inspiration, expiration, and breath holding

respiratory center

356

What part of the brain controls respiratory muscle contractions?

Respiratory center

357

What 2 systems send feedback to the respiratory center?

Chemical and Mechanical control systems

358

Stretch receptors in the lungs set limits on routine resting inspiration and expiration. What control system does this?

Mechanical control system

359

This system monitors the blood & only affects the breathing pattern if something gets out of balance. Receptors located in the carotid arteries, aorta, & brain stem monitor CO2, pH, & O2 in blood

Chemical control system

360

What is the normal pH of blood?

7.4

361

The more CO2 in the blood, the ______ the blood pH. (higher or lower)

lower, more acidic

362

Increased CO2 in blood causes decreased blood pH and triggers respiratory center to:

increase rate & depth of respiration

363

Decreased CO2 in blood causes increased blood pH and triggers respiratory center to:

decrease rate & depth of respiration

364

Decrease in blood O2 level is called

Hypoxia

365

Slight hypoxia triggers respiratory center to:

increase rate & depth of breathing

366

Neurons of the respiratory center can become so depressed that adequate nerve impulses cannot be sent to the respiratory muscles. Can cause breathing to decrease or stop completely. What condition is this?

Severe hypoxia

367

What happens if we are breathing for an animal that is under anesthesia?

O2 increases & CO2 decreases telling respiratory center to slow respiration

368

Bagging hyperventilates the patient causing more ____ than normal to be eliminated from the lungs. Decreased ____ causes the patient to stop breathing until the ____ level rises back into normal range

CO2