A&P 2.10 cervical and lumbar process Flashcards Preview

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Erector spinea

Erector - straight; spinea - spirals

A collective name for the group of three muscles that extend and maintain balance of the spine and rib cage. They are used in strong contraction in coughing and straining. Can be referred to as "sacrospinalis", or "paraspinal" or "paravertebral"

1

Erector spinea is divided into three groups

Medial to lateral (s,l,i)
Spinalis = closest to the spine
Longissmus= long (goes the farthest)
Iliocostalis = ilium/ ribs

2

Erector spinea

4 areas

Areas

Lumborum- lumbar region
Thoracis - thorax/thoracic
Cervicis = neck/ cervical
Capitis = head

3

Landmarks

Angle of ribs
Iliac crest
Spinous and transverse processes
Thoracolumbar aponeurosis / common tendon

4

Erector spinea group

Actions same for all muscles

Unilaterally - laterally flex vertebral column to the same side

Bilaterally - extend the vertebral column

5

Spinalis

I, O

Closest to the spine; spinous process to spinous process

O - spinous processes of the upper lumbar and lower thoracic vertebrae (THORACIS); ligamentum nuchae, spinous process of C-7 (CERVICIS)

I- spinous process of upper thoracic (THORACIS); spinous process of cervical s, except C-1 (CERVICIS)

6

Longissimus

I, O

Is the longest and goes to cranium (sacrum to mastoid process)
Intermediate to the spinalis and the iliocostalis

Transverse to transverse with some rib attachment

O - TP lumbar to the common tendon (THORACIS); TP of upper thoracic vertebrae (CERVICIS AND CAPITIS)

I - lower nine ribs and TP OF 4-12 thoracic vertebrae (THORACIS); TP of cervical vertebrae (CERVICIS); mastoid process of the temporal bone (CAPITIS)

7

Cranial nerve VIII


Vestibulochlear

Class - sensory

Function- balance/ equilibrium and hearing

8

Cranial nerve X

Vagus "wandering"

Mixed

Sensation - sensation of movement of pharynx, larynx, thoracic and abdominal viscera via stretch receptors (taste and touch, pain, temp) parasympathetic fibers chemoreceptors to all organs except adrenal glands (BP, o2/co2 for breathing)

Motor- skeletal muscle throat and neck (swallow, cough, voice); parasympathetic to smooth muscle (GI tract contraction/relaxion, slow heart, secrete digestive fluids ) rest and digest

9

Cranial nerve XI

Accessory

Mostly motor

2 divisions: the cranial division joins the vagus nerve and does same function as other vegas nerve fibers; accessory division is motor innervation to SCM and traps ( movement of head and shoulders)

10

Roots

Inside the vertebral canal- where spinal nerves attach to the spinal cord
Only location outside of cord where sensory and motor fibers are bundled separately

VENTRAL ROOT - motor fibers - efferent

DORSAL ROOT - sensory fibers - afferent (DORSAL ROOT GANGLION = CELL BODIES OF SENSORY NEURONS)

11

Rami/ramus

Branch - all are mixed nerves

Some of the branches or rami braid together to form PLEXUS. Some do not.

12

Dorsal RAMUS/posterior

Do not join together to form plexus

SOMATIC MOTOR AND SENSORY FIBERS SEGMENTALLY TO SMALLER NERVES THAT INNERVATE THE SKIN AND DEEP MUSCLES OF THE HEAD, NECK AND BACK AT THAT SEGMENT.

13

Mixed spinal nerve

After exiting the vertebral column roots merge to form a MIXED SPINAL NERVE

14

Plexus

Ventral RAMUS/anterior - only ventral joins together and form plexus (EXCEPT T2-T12)
Supply somatic motor and sensory innervation to skin of lateral and ventral portions of neck, trunk and extremities

15

Cervical plexus

PHRENIC NERVE most important nerve in plexus

Found deep in the neck, branches of the cervical plexus run parallel to CN XI (accessory) and XII (hypoglossal)
Ventral rami of C1-C5 exchange fibers in the CERVICAL PLEXUS
an important nerve of the cervical plexus is the PHRENIC NERVE which innervates the DIAPHRAGM

16

Lumbar plexus

FEMORAL NERVE AND OBTURATOR NERVE most important nerves in plexus

Formed by L1-4 and sometimes a branch of T12
Network located behind psoas major and in front of quadratus lumborum
Nerve arrangement varies from person to person

17

Femoral nerve

Innervates skin, muscles of anterior thigh (quadriceps); flexors of the thigh/EXTENSORS of the leg

Front of leg

18

OBTURATOR nerve

Obtur- to close up
Sensory of skin over medial thigh and motor to medial thigh (adductor muscles and OBTURATOR externus)

Goes through OBTURATOR foramen in the hip bone

19

Intercostal nerves

Vertical rami of T2-T12 innervates the structures at that level SEGMENTALLY and are called INTERCOSTAL NERVES; because they innervate the intercostal muscles and the skin at the same level