A1 - Physical development across the life stages. Flashcards Preview

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What are the key features of growth and physical development : Birth and Infancy

Age - 0-2 years
- Infants grow rapidly.
- 2 years - half their adult height.
- 1 year - able to walk.
- 2 years - able to run.


What are the key features of growth and physical development : Early Childhood

Age - 3-8 years
- Continue to grow at steady pace.
- Continue to develop strength and coordination.


What are the key features of growth and physical development : Adolescence

Age - 9-18 years
- Experience growth spurts.
- Develop sexual characteristics during puberty.


What are the key features of growth and physical development : Early Adulthood

Age - 19-45 years
- Reach peak of physical fitness.


What are the key features of growth and physical development : Middle Adulthood

Age - 46-65 years
- Ageing process begins with some loss of strength and stamina.
- Women go through menopause.


What are the key features of growth and physical development : Later Adulthood

Age - 65 + years
- Ageing process continues.
- Gradual loss of mobility.
- Older adults would experience : loss of height (few cm).


What is 'Growth'?

Growth is : An increase in some measured quantity, such as height or weight.


What is 'Development'?

Development is : Complex changes including an increase in skills, abilities and capabilities.


What are the principles of Growth?

- An increase in quantity.
- Growth is continuous, rate isn't smooth - can be periods of more rapid growth.
- There can be a difference in growth rates of two people (due to puberty and growth in infancy.)
- Growth rates differ between girls and boys.
- Growth rates vary at different parts of the body e.g. circum of head grows more rapidly than any other body part.


What are the principles of Development?

- From head - toe : infants will be able to control their head, then their body and finally over their legs / feet (in that order)
- From inside - outside : infants learn to control movements in their arms and legs then control small muscles in fingers etc.
- Same sequence but different rates.
- Holistically - areas of development are dependent on an influence each other.


What are Gross motor skills?

Gross motor skills are : Large movements that involve using the large muscles of the body which are required for mobility e.g. rolling


What are Fine motor skills?

Fine motor skills : Smaller movements that require more precise direction (dexterity) and use smaller muscles e.g. picking up a pencil.


Infancy (0-2 years) - Development milestones :

- Newborns : Helpless when it comes to coordination and control.
- 2 Years old : Infants develop and use both gross and fine motor skills as they become independent.


Infancy (0-2 years) -
Gross motor skills :

Gross motor skills :
Newborn - Primitive reflexes such as grasp.

1 Month - Lifts chin, some control of head.

3 Months - Can lift their head and chest when lying on front.

6 Months - Rolls over, can sit up for a short time without support, kicks legs when held up.

9-10 Months - Crawls, begins to cruise.

12-13 Months - Stands alone, can walk without help.

18 Months - Climbs onto furniture.

2 Years - Propels a sit-on toy with their feet, throws a large ball.

2.5 Years - Jumps from a low step, kicks a ball.


Infancy (0-2 years) -
Fine motor skills :

Fine motor skills :
Newborn - Holds their thumbs tucked into their hands.

1 Month - Opens hands to grasp a finger.

3 Months - Can briefly grasp a rattle.

6 Months - Moves objects from hand to hand, can pick up dropped toys if they are in sight.

9-10 Months - Uses finger and thumb to hold a small object.

12-13 Months - Manipulates and places toys.

18 Months - Builds a short tower with blocks.

2 Years - Draws lines and circles, turns a page.

2.5 Years - Uses a spoon and fork, builds a tower of 7-8 blocks.


Early Childhood (3-8 years) - Development of gross motor skills :

Gross motor skills :
- 3 years old : most children will be able to use pedals to ride a tricycle, run and balance on one foot for one second.

- 4 years old : children may be able to kick and throw a large ball.

- 5 years old : they can hop using each foot separately.

- 6/7 years old : may be able to skip or ride a bicycle.

- 8 years old : they will have good strength and body coordination so that they can take part in sports etc.


Early Childhood (3-8 years) - Development of fine motor skills :

Fine motor skills :
- 3 years old : children should be able to control their movements enough to use a pencil to copy letters or build a tower with cubes.

- 5 years old : most children should be able to dress and undress themselves and tie their shoelaces.

- 8 years old : they will have good control of their small muscles and be able to draw detailed pictures.


Adolescence (9-18 years) - Development of primary sexual characteristics :

Female :
- Uterus enlarges and vagina lengthens.
- The ovaries begin to release eggs.
- The menstrual cycle commences.

Male :
- Enlargement of penis and testes.
- Spontaneous erections caused by blood flowing into chambers in the penis may happen.
- The testicles begin to produce spermatozoa (sperm), beginning of ejacualtion.


Adolescence (9-18 years) - Development of secondary sexual characteristics :

Female :
- Breasts develop and the areola (the area around the nipple) swells and darkens.
- Hair grows in armpits and pubic area.
- Redistribution of body fat causing hips to widen.

Male :
- Changes in larynx (Adam's apple) causing voice to deepen.
- Hair grows in armpits and pubic area, facial hair.
- Redistribution of muscle tissue and fat.


Adolescence (9-18 years) - Role of hormones in sexual maturity :

Female - Oestrogen and Progesterone
- Ovaries produce Oestrogen and Progesterone which are responsible for ovulation and menstruation.
- First period is significant, indicated onset of fertility.

Male - Testosterone
- Testes start to produce testosterone stimulating sperm production.
- Indicates onset of fertility.


Early Adulthood (19-45 years) - Physical strength peaks :

Physical strength peaks -
- Reach peak of physical performance by 19-28 years of age.

- Reached their full height and strength, reaction time and manual dexterity are also at their peak.

- Exercise and a healthy diet can help to develop physical fitness and athletic skills into middle adulthood.


Early Adulthood (19-45 years) - Pregnancy and lactation :

Pregnancy and lactation -
- Women may experience physical and emotional changes in preparation for parenthood - mood swings.

- Increase in progesterone which maintains pregnancy.

- Increase in oestrogen is responsible for sickness some suffer when pregnant.

- Effect shape and appearance of a woman's breasts.


Early Adulthood (19-45 years) - Perimenopause :

Perimenopause -
- Lasts until menopause (when ovaries stop releasing eggs) - lasts around 4 years.

- Reduction in oestrogen causes physical and emotional symptoms.


Early Adulthood (19-45 years) - Perimenopause symptoms :

Symptoms :
- Hot flushes / night sweats
- Breast tenderness
- Loss of libido (low sex drive)
- Fatigue
- Irregular / heavy periods
- Vaginal dryness / discomfort during sex
- Mood swings
- Trouble sleeping
- Urine leakage when coughing / sneezing
- Urinary urgency


Middle Adulthood (46-65 years) - Menopause :

Menopause :
- Risk of miscarriage / pregnancy complications rises with age.

- Involves :
- Gradual ending of menstruation / large reduction of fertile eggs in the ovaries.

- Increase in the production of hormones called gonadotropins that stimulate egg production, causing irritability, hot flushes and night sweats.

- Reduction in the sex hormones produced by the ovaries, resulting in shrinkage and sexual organs and sometimes a reduction in sexual interest.

- Associated problems such as osteoporosis, which can be caused by a reduction in the production of sex hormones.


Middle Adulthood (46-65 years) - Effects of ageing process :

Effects of ageing process :
- Put on weight as they age, 'middle aged spread'.

- Change in body shape : increased weight and waistline, loss of skin elasticity and loss of muscle tone and strength.


Later Adulthood (65+ years) - Deterioration of health :

Deterioration of health :
- Changes in body system and organs which could be a result of disease and can impact on an individuals lifestyle.

- By 80 may have lost as much as 5 cm in height.

- Caused by changes in posture and compression of the spinal discs and joints.

- Loss of strength and muscle loss and reduction in stamina.

- Mobility and dexterity become more difficult - accident may occur.

- Visual and hearing problems may interfere in daily life.


Later Adulthood (65+ years) - Deterioration of intellectual abilities :

Deterioration of intellectual abilities :

- Major depressive disorders tend to go undiagnosed.

- Alzheimer's / Parkinson's disease are common in older people.



What is 'Cognitive impairment'?

Cognitive impairment :
When a person has trouble remembering, learning new skills, concentrating or making decisions that affect their everyday life.