A2. Thoracic Wall Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A2. Thoracic Wall Deck (52):
1

3 parts of sternum

1. manubrium
2. body
3. xyphoid process

2

jugular notch

indentation formed by both clavicular heads and the superior aspect of the manubrium

3

angle of louis (sternal angle)

junction between the manubrium and the body of the sternum.

Also where the 2nd rib joins the sternum

4

Thoracic inlet (superior thoracic aperture

Runs along top of 1st rib (not clavicle), manubrium, and T1. it is the opening through which structures enter and exit the thorax superiorly

5

Structures that pass between thoracic inlet

1. trachea
2. esophagus
3. vasculature from heart to head
4. tops of the lungs will stick out a little as well

6

Thoracic outlet (inferior thoracic aperture)

runs along the lower/inferior border of the ribs (costal margin). It can be though of as the perimeter of the diaphragm.

7

Structures that pass through the thoracic outlet (diaphragm)

1. lymphatics
2. esophagus
3. descending aorta
4. inferior vena cava

8

True ribs

first 7 ribs attach to the sternum via their own cartilage

9

False ribs

8, 9, 10 don't attach via their own cartilage, they attach onto the cartilage of rib 7

10

Floating ribs

11, 12 ends do not attach to the cartilage of any ribs nor the sternum

*The kidney and spleen are close and can be prone to injury if these ribs become fractured

11

Intercostal spaces

Between ribs and named after superior rib.

*There are only 11 interspaces

12

Only joint connecting upper extremity to the trunk

sternoclavicular joint

13

synchondrosis

structural joint with fusion of cartilage

14

sternocostal joints

2-7 are synovial

15

costochondral joints

joints between end of the bony part of ribs and the beginning of their cartilage - also synchondroses

16

superior and inferior articular facets

the joint surfaces where the rib meets the vertebral body

17

articular facet of transverse process

where the rib will meet the transverse process of the vertebrae

18

tubercle

little bump on rib

19

angle of rib

the point at which the rib curves anteriorly

20

costal groove

inferior surface on deep aspect of the rib where the neurovascular bundle runs (1 nerve, 1 artery, 1 vein)

21

intervertebral foramen

circle that is the space between the connecting inferior and superior vertebral notches

22

external intercostal muscles

muscles of inspiration extend proximally from the rib above

23

internal intercostal muscles

run distally from the rib above

24

intrinsic muscles

muscles that perform function in the same area

25

extrinsic muscles

muscles in which one end attaches somewhere else to perform function

26

innermost intercostal muscles

innermost, deep to the internal intercostal muscles, do not extend all the way anteriorly nor posteriorly

27

internal intercostal muscles

superficial to the innermost, do not extend all the way posteriorly but DO extend all the way anteriorly

28

External intercostal muscles

outermost, extend posteriorly but not anteriorly. the membrane of the external intercostals extends this all the way anteriorly

29

neurovascular bundle

runs between the innermost and internal intercostal layers

30

subclavian artery

emerges from thoracic inlet, dives under the clavicle but over the first rib

31

internal thoracic artery

branches off the subclavian artery and runs along the inside of the thorax

32

axillary artery

subclavian artery becomes axillary artery once it crosses over the first rib

33

lateral thoracic artery

branch off the axillary artery, supplies the muscles in and around the thoracic wall

34

anterior intercostal arteries

branch from internal thoracic artery and run between ribs in the neurovascular bundle

35

anterior perforating branches

come directly through the muscles of the chest wall to supply the breast, skin, etc.

36

thoracic (descending) aorta

runs along the left side of the vertebral column, gives off branches bilaterally

37

posterior intercostal arteries

branch from the descending aorta and run along the costal groove between ribs in the neurovascular bundle

38

collateral (anastomotic) circulation

vessels and their supply intermingle
ex: anterior and posterior intercostal arteries

39

intercostal nerve

coming from spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, runs with the posterior intercostal artery along the neurovascular bundle

*there is no nerve equivalent to the anterior intercostal artery

40

lateral cutaneous nerve

branches off the intercostal nerve to serve the skin

41

deltoid

pennate muscle

originates from clavicle and comes anteriorly to the humerus

there is a spine on the scapula to which it also attaches

contraction = abduction of the arm away from the body

42

pectoralis major

attaches to the clavicle, sternum, and costal margin

flexes the arm but also aids in partial extension

43

pectoralis minor

smaller and lies deep to pect major

typically attaches to ribs 3-5, but can vary

covered by clavicpectoral fascia

44

serratus anterior

attaches individually to the ribs

supplied by the long thoracic nerve

45

deltopectoral triangle

clavicle, pectoralis major, deltoid

cephalic vein runs through this area

46

brachial plexus

system of nerves arising from the neck that supply the arm

47

lateral pectoral nerve

1 branch that goes directly to pectoralis major

48

medial pectoral nerve

pierces the pectoralis minor, innervates it, and also goes to the pect major

49

blood supply of breast

anterior perforating branches of the internal thoracic artery

50

axillary tail of spence

comes off upper outer quadrant of breast, making it the biggest quadrant by volume

51

retromammory space

posterior to breast

52

suspensory ligaments

run through the breast tissue and anchor the structures of the breast to the fascia