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Flashcards in Abdomen Deck (27)
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1

Rectus Abdominus is intersected horizontally by ____ and vertically by ____

Tendinous interection
Linea Alba

2

Formed by the free inferior border of the external oblique aponeurosis

Inguinal Ligament

3

Layers of anterior abdominal wall, out > in

Skin
Sub Q Fat, "Camper's Fascia"
Deep Membranous Sub Q Tissues, "Scarpa Fascia"
Rectus Fascia *Separated by *Investing Fascia*
- External Oblique
- Internal Oblique
- Transverse Oblique
Endoabdominal Transversalis Fascia
Extraperitoneal Fat
Parietal Peritoneal

4

Three layers of muscles of anterolateral abdominal wall (Out > In)

External Oblique - attaches to Iliac Crest
Internal Oblique
Transverse Abdominus
Rectus Abdominus

5

A horizontal line that demarcates the lower limit of the posterior layer of the rectus sheath. It is also where the inferior epigastric vessels perforate the rectus abdominis.

Arcuate Line

6

Where do nerves of abdominal wall travel

Between Internal Oblique and Transversus Abdominis muscles

7

5 nerve groups that innervate abdominal wall

Thoracoabdominal nerves (T7 - T11)
**Anterior cutaneous branches and lateral cutaneous branches**

Subcostal nerve, lateral and anterior cutaneous branch, (T 12)

Iliohypogastric nerve (L1)

Iliolingual nerbe (L1)

8

Abdominal Wall Arteries

Superior Epigastic (where does it come from? Internal Thoracic Artery?)

Inferior Epigastric
Superficial Epigastric
External Iliac (leads to above two arteries?)
Femoral (leads to external iliac)

9

Pros of Midline Vertical Incision

More surgical visibility
Incision is extendable
Lower risk of infection, especially if patient is obese

10

Cons of Midline Vertical Incision

Higher risk of Dehiscence
Cosmetic

11

Pros of Low Transverse Incision

Cosmesis
Lower risk of Dehiscence

12

Abdominal folds

Lateral - Inferior epigastric artery
Medial - Obliterated fetal umbilical artery
Median - Obliterated fetal urachus

13

Where is the internal inguinal ring and what travels through it?

**Lies near Lateral Abdominal Fold**

Indirect Inguinal Hernias
Testis
Ductus Deferens
Testicular artery and vein
Spermatic cord

14

Where is the external inguinal ring and what travels through it?

Just anterior to the Medial Fold (fetal umbilical a.)

Direct inguinal hernias

15

Recesses in the peritoneal cavity between the anterior part of the liver and the diaphragm, separated into R and L by the falciform ligament

Subphrenic Space

16

Lesser Sac

Lesser omentum, between liver and stomach
Omental foramen
Omental bursa

Celiac trunk and Pancreas? inside

17

Where do lower and middle esophagus blood supply drain?

Azygous system

18

Where do middle and lower rectum blood supply drain?

Pudendal Vein > Internal Iliac System > Inferior Vena Cava

19

Two venous detours used when there's Portal Hypertension

Iliac System (rectum)

Azygous System (lower esophagus)

20

Branches off abdominal aorta, top-down

Celiac Trunk
Superior Mesenteric
Renal
Inferior mesenteric
Common Iliac
External Iliac
Internal Iliac
Femoral

21

At what area of the spine does the aorta bifurcate

L4

22

3 Main branches of the Celiac Trunk

Left Gastric
Splenic
Common Hepatic

23

Common Hepatic branches / organs

Left Hepatic
Right Hepatic
Cystic

Right Gastric
Pancreato-duodenal


Supplies:
Liver, gallbladder, stomach, duodenum, pancreas (head and neck)

24

Left Gastric Branches / organs

Gastric artery branches
Esophageal branches

Supplies:
Stomach and esophagus

25

Splenic branches / organs

Pancreatic
Short gastric
Splenic

Supplies:
Spleen, stomach, pancreas (neck body tail)

26

Branches of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

Inferior Pancreatoduodenal (head of panc, lower duod)
Intestinal (ileum and jejunum)
Ileocolic (last part ileum, cecum, appendix)
Right Colic (ascending colon)
Middle Colic (transverse colon)

27

Branches of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

Left colic artery (descending colon)
Sigmoid branches
Superior rectal artery (terminal IMA)