Abdominal, groin or testicular swelling Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Abdominal, groin or testicular swelling Deck (16):
1

Commonest malignancies in children

Leukaemia,
Brain tumours
Lymphoma

2

Malignancies that cause abdomen masses

Neuroblastoma
Wilm's tumour

3

Common causes of abdominal and scrotal masses in paeds.

Faecal masses
Neuroblastoma
Nephroblastoma(wilm's tumour)
Lymphoma

4

DDX for painful scrotal mass

Emergency- surgical
Testicular torsion
Incarcerated hernias

5

DDX for Swelling of goin

Inguinal hernia
Testicular torsion
Inguinal lymphadenopathy
Hydrocele
Infection

6

DDX for impalpable testes

Retractile testes
Undescended testis
Ectopic testes

7

Inguinal hernia

Common in preterm infants
Increase in size when baby cries
Swelling extends up into the groin and does not transilluminate
Testes are palpable and distinct from the swelling
Reduction of the swelling is diagnostic
No pain unless incarcerated
Mx - Surgery

8

Testicular torsion

Surgical emergency
Tender swollen scrotum
Intense pain
Occurs in puberty boys

9

Inguinal lymphadenopathy

Firm nodules with clear borders
May be tender
Responsible infected lesion may be found in leg

10

Hydrocele

Often present from birth and usually resolves by 12 months
No pain
Does not extend into the groin
Testis cannot be palpated through the fluid
Transilluminates
Mx - self resolves

11

Retractile testis

Brought down by careful palpating
Ex the child with warm hands, and cross-legged or squated

12

Undescended testis

May be unilateral or bilateral
More common in premature babies
May be associated with inguinal Bernie
Mx - Orchidopexy required by 1 yr to avoid infertility, torsion and malignancy

13

Ectopic testes

Testes descend but along an abnormal path
May be in superficial inguinal pouch or on perineum.

14

Bilateral impalpable testes

Rarely be a manifestation of a virilized female eg CAH
Pelvic USS is needed
Can be a sign of severe anterior pituitary dysfunction especially if associated with micro penis.

15

Wilm's tumour - Nephroblastoma

Presents as abdominal mass
Mean age is 39 m
Predisposing syndromes frequently present
Metastasis in 10% to lung and liver
Prognostic factors depend on stage and histology

16

Neuroblastoma

Symptoms - pain and anaemia
Mean age 22 m
Predisposing syndromes - Rare
Metastasis 70% to skin and liver in infants and bone marrow and bone in older children.
Prognostic factor - age, biology, histology and stage.