Flashcards in Abdominal Vasculature and Lymphatics Deck (55):
abdominal organs are supplied by what 3 unpaired branches off the abdominal aorta (name them)
Celiac Trunk (foregut)
Superior Mesenteric Artery (midgut)
Inferior Mesenteric Artery (hindgut)
what organs have dual blood supply and why?
duodenum (celiac trunk and superior mesenteric artery)
transverse colon (superior and inferior mesenteric arteries)
due to development in foregut-midgut and midgut-hindgut transitions
what organs are supplied by the celiac trunk?
what organs are supplied by superior mesenteric artery?
jejunum and ileum
cecum and appendix
hepatic (right colic) flexure
what organs are supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery
splenic (left colic) flexure
descending and sigmoid colons
anal canal (upper part)
Celiac Trunk originates at what level and what are its branches
originates at vertebral level T12
three major branches:
Superior Mesenteric Artery
(what does it supply, at what level does it originate, what is its course)
supplies midgut derivaties
originates at vertebral level L1
passes over 3rd part of duodenum and travels in mesentery
Superior Mesenteric Artery
(what are the major branches of the and what do they supply)
1. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal- inferior pancreas and duodenum
2. Intestinal branches- jejunum and ileum
3. Middle Colic- transverse colon
4. Right Colic- ascending colon
5. Ileocolic- cecum (ilum-comon jucntion)
Inferior Mesenteric Artery
(what does it supply and at what level does it originate)
supplies hindgut derivatives
originates at vertebral level L3
Inferior Mesenteric Artery
(major branches and what they supply)
Left Colic- to descending colon
Sigmoid Branches- sigmoid colon
Superior Rectal- rectum
arterial anastomoses occur in the abdomen between what?
between celiac and superior mesenteric arteries
between superior and inferior mesenteric artery
what is the course of the anastomosis between celiac and superior mesenteric arteries
around the head of the pancreas via superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries
what is the course of the anastomosis betweensuperior and inferior mesenteric artery
near the left colic flexure through the Marginal Artery of Drummond
Marginal Artery of Drummond
(what is it, what forms it, what does it do)
its a continuous anastomosing arterial channel on the inner aspect of the large intestines
formed by branches of superior and inferior mesenteric arteries
provides communication between superior and inferior mesenteric alone entire margin of colon
what are the two drainage systems for the abdomen
The Portal System (drains blood from where to where)
blood from digestive organs and spleen
drains through liver before it is returned to IVC
Portal Vein (formed by what)
junction of splenic and superior mesenteric veins posterior to the neck of the pancreas
inferior mesenteric joins either splenic or superior mesenteric
Veins of Portal System do or do not have valves
veins or portal system DO NOT have valves
what is the main conduit to the liver?
filtered blood from the liver is drained to the IVC via?
Caval System (drains blood from where to where
blood from non-digestive organs (legs, body wall, urogenital, and reproductive systems)
drain directly into IVC
In cases where IVC is blocked how does blood return to the heart?
through Azygous System which are also connected to the caval system
Increased pressure in the portal system can lead to what?
portal hypertension b/c of no valves in portal system veins
portal hypertension may cause?
blood to back flow directly into the intestines or into the caval system though one of the four connections
can produce varicose veins in these areas
Name the 4 areas of Portal-Caval Anastomoses
Posterior Abdominal Wall
The Portal-Caval Anastomosis at the Esophagus (what is the portal system, caval system, and symptom involved with this area)
Portal System: Left Gastric
Caval System: Esophageal
Symptom: esophageal carices (hemorrhage may be fatal0
The Portal-Caval Anastomosis at the Umbilicus (what is the portal system, caval system, and symptom involved with this area)
Portal System: Paraumbilical
Caval System:Superficial Epigastric
Symptom: caput medusae
The Portal-Caval Anastomosis at the Rectum (what is the portal system, caval system, and symptom involved with this area)
Portal System: Superior Rectal
Caval System: Inferior Rectal
Symptom: internal hemorrhoids
The Portal-Caval Anastomosis at the Posterior Abdominal (what is the portal system, caval system, and symptom involved with this area)
Portal System: Colic Veins
Caval System: Retroperitoneal Veins
The aortic bifurcation occurs at what vertebral level
Splenic Artery (path and branches)
tortuous path from celiac trunk to spleen
multiple branches in pancreas
left gastroepiploic artery- branches close to spleen
short gastric arteries- to the fundus of stomach
Common Hepatic Artery (path and branches)
ends by dividing into: proper hepatic artery
Proper Hepatic Artery (branches)
Right Gastric- stomach (lesser curvature)
Left Hepatic- liver
Right Hepatic- liver
Cystic- gall bladder
Gastroduodenal Artery (branches and what they supply)
Superior-Pancreaticoduodenal- prancers and duodenu (superior part)
Right Gastroepiploic- stomach (greater omentum- greater curvature)
intestinal branches (from superior mesenteric) to jejunum and ileum form what?
arcades and vasa recta in the mesentery
lymph flow in the abdomen follows the path of what?
its blood vessels
What two regions of the abdomen is the lymph flow important and why?
testes and scrotum
superior and inferior half of anal canal
different patterns of blood supply and lymph drainages due to different developmental origin of the structures (despite anatomical proximity)
Lymph from the abdominal wall superior to the umbilicus is drained via what nodes?
anterior and posterior axillary nodes
Lymph from the abdominal wall inferior to the umbilicus is drained via what nodes?
superficial inguinal noes
Lymph from the testes (inguinal region) is drained via what nodes?
para-aortic (lumbar) nodes
Lymph from the scrotal skin and fascia (inguinal region) is drained via what nodes?
Superficial inguinal nodes
Lymph from the skin of the labia major (inguinal region) is drained via what nodes?
Superficial inguinal noes
Pre-aortic Nodes (what are they, what do they form)
lymph nodes located anterior to the abdominal aorta
drain lymph from GI Tract (except inferior anal canal)
form an intestinal trunk
Intestinal Trunk (formed from what and drains into what
formed from pre-aortic nodes
drains into the cistern chyli
Pre-aortic nodes (name them)
Superior Mesenteric Nodes
Inferior Mesenteric Nodes
The lymph from the gastrointestinal tract is drained via what nodes (with what exception)
pre-aortic nodes (celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric
exception is anal canal
The lymph from the anal canal superior to the pectinate line drains via what nodes?
inferior mesenteric nodes
The lymph from the anal canal inferior to the pectinate line drains via what nodes?
superficial inguinal nodes
The lymph from the posterior abdomen drains into what nodes?
pre-aortic and para-aortic (lumbar) nodes
the cistern chyli marks what?
beginning of thoracic duct
the pre-aortic and para-aortic trunks come tother at a confluence called what?
what supplies blood to the stomach-duodenum junction
the left gastric artery ives what branches?
there are arterial anastamosis around what parts of the stomach?
greater curvature (right and left gastroepiploic arteries)
lesser curvature (right and left gastric arteries)