ABEM Recert Exam pt. 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ABEM Recert Exam pt. 1 Deck (153)
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1

Mechanism of hypovolemic hyponatremia

Loss of Na in excess of loss of H2O

2

Rx for hypovolemic hyponatremia

Saline

3

Mechanism of euvolemic hyponatremia

Dilutional from slight water retention

4

Types of euvolemic hyponatremia

1. Hypothyroidism
2. Arsenal insufficiency
3. Psychogenic polydipsia
4. SIADH

HAPS

5

Rx for euvolemic hyponatremia

Fluid restrition

6

Mechanism of hypervolemic hyponatremia

Severe water retention

7

Types of hypervolemic hyponatremia

1. Acute renal failure
2. Hyperglycemia
3. Severe edema

8

Rx for hypervolemic hyponatremia

Fluid restriction

9

Maximum rate of correction of Na in hyponatremia

0.5 meq/L/hr in chronic
1 meq/L/h in acute

10

Usual cause of hypernatremia

Decreased total body water

11

Mechanism of diabetes insipidus

Lack of ADH; causes hypernatremia

12

Hypercalcemia: MCC

Malignancy

13

Hypercalemia: Si/sx based on levels

<12: asymptomatic or mild N/V and anorexia
12-14: weakness & fatigue
15+: altered MS

14

Hypercalcemia: Rx

Lasix

15

Hypocalcemia: Usual causes

parathyroidism or thyroid surgery

16

Chvostek sign:

Seen with hypocalcemia
Twitching of mouth with tapping on facial nerve

17

Trousseau sign

Seen with hypocalcemia
Carpal spasm with inflation of BP cuff

18

Hypocalcemia: si/sx

Anorexia, N/V, fatigue

19

Hypomagnesiumemia: si/sx

Anoerxia, N/V, fatigue

20

Malempatti: how is it scored?

1 = best view
4 = horrible view

21

ETT: Where to secure in adult males and females

21cm at lip in females
23cm at lip in males

22

When to perform needle cricothyroidotomy?

Infants and small children, can't do typical open crich because membrane is too small

23

When to use uncuffed ET tubes?

Age <2

24

Where is narrowest part of airway?

Adults = vocal cords
Pediatrics = criccoid rings

25

ET tube: How to calculate size

(Age / 4) + 4

26

ET tube: How far to insert in peds

3 x ETT size

27

Blade to use for intubation with term infants

Miller 1

28

Blade to use for intubation with preterm infants

Miller 0

29

Benzocaine: What toxicity is seen with excess use of?

Methemoglobinemia

30

How to tell amides and esters apart?

Amides have "i" prior to caine in name
Esters don't