Flashcards in ABG Deck (31):
Normal pH level ?
7.35 - 7.45
35 - 45
22 - 26 mmHG
80 - 100
95% or greater
Respiration is stimulated by ____? And controlled by the amount of ______ in the blood stream ?
Respiration is stimulated by carbon dioxide and controlled by the amount of PCo2 in the blood steam
Low in PaCO2 is ________ ?
What is PaCO2 ?
Pressure exerted by oxygen dissolved in plasma of arterial blood
What is SaO2
Percentage of hemoglobin saturated or combined with oxygen
What is pCO2 ?
Partial pressure of carbon dioxide ; Buffered by lungs
What is HCO3 ?
Buffered by kidneys ; Bicarbonate is the BODY’S BASE
High in PaO2 is ________ ?
Low in PCO2 is ________ ?
Hypocarbia or Hypocapnia
High PCO2 is called _________ ?
Hypercarbia or Hypercapnia
If less than 7.35 is it acidosis or alkalosis ?
If greater than 7.45 there is _____________ ?
How to read ABGs ?
1. Look for pH
2. Look at the PaCO2
3. Look at the HCO3
4. Evaluate the degree of compensation or correction
5. Evaluate the ABG for a mixed acid - base disorder
PaCO2 increased with acidosis
PaCO2 is decreased with a decrease in pH
If PaCO2 is decreased with alkalosis
PaCO2 is increased with alkalosis
PaCO2 is 35 - 45 with a normal pH
No acid- base disorder or there are two disorders moving the PaCO2 in the opposite directions
HCO3 is increased with alkalosis
HCO3 is decreased with acidosis
Causes of respiratory acidosis ( Retained CO2 due to hypoventilation)
CNS depression caused by narcotics, sedatives, cardiac arrest, drug overdose, atelectasis, pneumothorax, emphysema, pulmonary embolism, ARDS
Causes of respiratory alkalosis (excessive CO2 due to hyperventilation)
Anxiety, panic attack, fever, hypoxia, pulmonary disorders, and excess assisted ventilation
Causes of metabolic acidosis
DKA, starvation, salicylates ( aspirin ), iron and INH overdose, alcohol intoxication, persistent diarrhea, uremia ( renal failure), sepsis, lactic acidosis, shock, respiratory or cardiac arrest
Causes of metabolic alkalosis
Persistent vomiting, gastric suctioning, hypokalemia, excess alkali sodium bicarbonate, carbonated drinks, intestinal fistula, mild diarrhea
*MNEUMONIC* FOR METABOLIC ACIDOSIS
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
No food (starvation)
Aspirin (salicylate poisoning)
Ethylene glycol (automatic antifreeze and hydraulic brake fluid)
Methanol (methyl alcohol and wood alcohol)
Paraldehyde (hypnotic and sedative)
REDUCED O2 IN BLOOD