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Flashcards in ABG Deck (29):
1

Normal pH level ?

7.35 - 7.45

2

Normal PaCO2

35 - 45

3

HCO3

22 - 26 mmHG

4

PaO2

80 - 100

5

SaO2

95% or greater

6

Respiration is stimulated by ____? And controlled by the amount of ______ in the blood stream ?

Respiration is stimulated by carbon dioxide and controlled by the amount of PCo2 in the blood steam

7

Low in PaCO2 is ________ ?

Hypoxemia

8

What is PaCO2 ?

Pressure exerted by oxygen dissolved in plasma of arterial blood

9

What is SaO2

Percentage of hemoglobin saturated or combined with oxygen

10

What is pCO2 ?

Partial pressure of carbon dioxide ; Buffered by lungs

11

What is HCO3 ?

Buffered by kidneys ; Bicarbonate is the BODY’S BASE

12

High in PaO2 is ________ ?

Hyperoxia

13

Low in PCO2 is ________ ?

Hypocarbia or Hypocapnia

14

High PCO2 is called _________ ?

Hypercarbia or Hypercapnia

15

If less than 7.35 is it acidosis or alkalosis ?

Acidosis

16

If greater than 7.45 there is _____________ ?

Alkalosis

17

How to read ABGs ?

1. Look for pH
2. Look at the PaCO2
3. Look at the HCO3
4. Evaluate the degree of compensation or correction
5. Evaluate the ABG for a mixed acid - base disorder

18

PaCO2 increased with acidosis

Respiratory acidosis

19

PaCO2 is decreased with a decrease in pH

Metabolic acidosis

20

If PaCO2 is decreased with alkalosis

Respiratory alkalosis

21

PaCO2 is increased with alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis

22

PaCO2 is 35 - 45 with a normal pH

No acid- base disorder or there are two disorders moving the PaCO2 in the opposite directions

23

HCO3 is increased with alkalosis

Metabolic alkalosis

24

HCO3 is decreased with acidosis

Metabolic acidosis

25

Causes of respiratory acidosis ( Retained CO2 due to hypoventilation)

CNS depression caused by narcotics, sedatives, cardiac arrest, drug overdose, atelectasis, pneumothorax, emphysema, pulmonary embolism, ARDS

26

Causes of respiratory alkalosis (excessive CO2 due to hyperventilation)

Anxiety, panic attack, fever, hypoxia, pulmonary disorders, and excess assisted ventilation

27

Causes of metabolic acidosis

DKA, starvation, salicylates ( aspirin ), iron and INH overdose, alcohol intoxication, persistent diarrhea, uremia ( renal failure), sepsis, lactic acidosis, shock, respiratory or cardiac arrest

28

Causes of metabolic alkalosis

Persistent vomiting, gastric suctioning, hypokalemia, excess alkali sodium bicarbonate, carbonated drinks, intestinal fistula, mild diarrhea

29

*MNEUMONIC* FOR METABOLIC ACIDOSIS

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)

Alcohol intoxication

Renal failure

Lactic acidosis

Iron poisoning

No food (starvation)

Generalized seizures

Sepsis

Aspirin (salicylate poisoning)

Rhabdomyolysis

Ethylene glycol (automatic antifreeze and hydraulic brake fluid)

INH (Isoniazid)

Methanol (methyl alcohol and wood alcohol)

Paraldehyde (hypnotic and sedative)

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