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Flashcards in ABSITE - Thoracic Deck (39):
1

Where does the azygous v. run?

along the R side

2

Where does the azygous v. empty?

into the SVC

3

At what level does the thoracic duct cross midline?

T4-5

4

what side does the thoracic duct run along?

R side

5

What doest he thoracic duct empty into?

L subclavian v. @ junction w/ IJV

6

Phrenic n. - ant or posterior to hilum?

anterior

7

Vagus n. - ant or posterior to hilum?

posterior

8

R lung lobes?

RUL, RML, RLL

9

L lung lobes

LUL, LLL, lingula

10

L lung lobes vs R lung lobes - total lung volume

R ~55%; L ~45%

11

what are the accessory mm of respiration?

SCM, levators, serratus posterior, scalenes

12

function of type 1 pneumocytes

gas exchange

13

function of type 2 pneumocytes

surfactant production (phosphatidylcholine, which keeps alveoli open)

14

what are pores of kahn?

they allow direct air exchange btwn alveoli

15

what is the S phase?

protein synthesis, chromosomal duplication

16

What are the phases of the cell cycle?

G1, S, G2, M

17

What are the phases of mitosis?

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

18

Prophase

centromere attachment, centriole and spindle formation, nucleus disappears

19

metaphase

chromosome alignment

20

anaphase

chromosomes separate

21

telophase

separate nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes

22

G1

growth factors affect cell during G1

23

What is G0 of cell cycle?

cells are quiescent; can enter G1

24

Steroid hormones

bind receptors in the cytoplasm

25

thyroid hormones

bind receptors in nucleus

26

DNA PCR

use oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences

27

Purines

A,G (adenine, guanine)

28

Pyrimidines

C,T,U (RNA only) (cytosine, thymidine, uracil)

29

What binds guanine and cytosine?

3 Hydrogen bonds

30

What binds adenine to thymidine/uracil?

2 hydrogen bonds

31

Glycolysis generates ____ from 1 glucose molecule

2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules

32

Krebs/citric acid cycle produces ___ from ____

NADH and FADH2 from 2 pyruvate molecules (electron transport molecules)

33

1 glucose produces __ ATP

~36

34

what is gluconeogenesis?

process of lactate (via Cori cycle) and amino acids (especially alanine) are converted to glucose; activates during starvation and stress times

35

Fat and lipids are not available for gluconeogenesis because ___

acetyel CoA (product of fat metabolism) can't be converted back to pyruvate

36

what is the Cori cycle?

liver converts muscle lactate into glucose; pyruvate is a key player in this process

37

which signalling pathways utilize 2nd messengers?

Phospholipase C, protein kinase A, MAPK/ERK pathway

38

Protein kinase C pathway is activated by ...

Calcium, DAG

39

Protein kinase A is activated by...

cAMP