Flashcards in ABSITE - Thoracic Deck (39):
Where does the azygous v. run?
along the R side
Where does the azygous v. empty?
into the SVC
At what level does the thoracic duct cross midline?
what side does the thoracic duct run along?
What doest he thoracic duct empty into?
L subclavian v. @ junction w/ IJV
Phrenic n. - ant or posterior to hilum?
Vagus n. - ant or posterior to hilum?
R lung lobes?
RUL, RML, RLL
L lung lobes
LUL, LLL, lingula
L lung lobes vs R lung lobes - total lung volume
R ~55%; L ~45%
what are the accessory mm of respiration?
SCM, levators, serratus posterior, scalenes
function of type 1 pneumocytes
function of type 2 pneumocytes
surfactant production (phosphatidylcholine, which keeps alveoli open)
what are pores of kahn?
they allow direct air exchange btwn alveoli
what is the S phase?
protein synthesis, chromosomal duplication
What are the phases of the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2, M
What are the phases of mitosis?
Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
centromere attachment, centriole and spindle formation, nucleus disappears
separate nucleus reforms around each set of chromosomes
growth factors affect cell during G1
What is G0 of cell cycle?
cells are quiescent; can enter G1
bind receptors in the cytoplasm
bind receptors in nucleus
use oligonucleotides to amplify specific DNA sequences
A,G (adenine, guanine)
C,T,U (RNA only) (cytosine, thymidine, uracil)
What binds guanine and cytosine?
3 Hydrogen bonds
What binds adenine to thymidine/uracil?
2 hydrogen bonds
Glycolysis generates ____ from 1 glucose molecule
2 ATP and 2 pyruvate molecules
Krebs/citric acid cycle produces ___ from ____
NADH and FADH2 from 2 pyruvate molecules (electron transport molecules)
1 glucose produces __ ATP
what is gluconeogenesis?
process of lactate (via Cori cycle) and amino acids (especially alanine) are converted to glucose; activates during starvation and stress times
Fat and lipids are not available for gluconeogenesis because ___
acetyel CoA (product of fat metabolism) can't be converted back to pyruvate
what is the Cori cycle?
liver converts muscle lactate into glucose; pyruvate is a key player in this process
which signalling pathways utilize 2nd messengers?
Phospholipase C, protein kinase A, MAPK/ERK pathway
Protein kinase C pathway is activated by ...