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Year 12 Digestion & Absorption > Absorption of digested food > Flashcards

Flashcards in Absorption of digested food Deck (15)
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1

Describe how glucose is absorbed from the lumen of the small intestine into the blood.

Sodium ions actively transported out of epithelium cell.
Using sodium/potassium pump
Maintains a low concentration of sodium ions inside epithelium cell.
Sodium ion and glucose co-transported from small intestine into epithelial cell down the concentration gradient for sodium ions.
Glucose the passes into blood by facilitated diffusion

2

What happens to triglycerides which have reformed in the endoplasmic reticulum of the small intestine epithelium?

Transferred to Golgi apparatus and combined with cholesterol and lipoprotein
To form Chylomicrons

3

How are the villi adapted to optimise the absorption of digested food?

Large surface area for diffusion
Microvilli further increase surface area
Very thin walls so short diffusion distance
Many capillaries so maintains the concentration gradient.

4

What is a lacteal?

Lymphatic capillary in the centre of each villus

5

Where are the products of digestion absorbed?

Small intestine/ileum

6

Glucose and amino acids are absorbed by ......

Cotransport

7

What happens to monoglycerides and fatty acids after they enter the epithelium cell of the small intestine

Transported to endoplasmic reticulum where they are recombined into triglycerides

8

What happens to monoglycerides and fatty acids after they enter the epithelium cell of the small intestine

Transported to endoplasmic reticulum
Condensed to form triglycerides

9

How do monoglycerides and fatty acids enter the epithelium cell of the ileum

Simple diffusion

10

Bile salts emulsify fatty acids into smaller structures called .....

Micelles

11

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus in ibid absorption/

Triglycerides associate with cholesterol and lipoproteins

12

What is the function of the Golgi apparatus in lipid absorption

Triglycerides associate with cholesterol and lipoproteins
To form chylomicron

13

Name the type of transport used to move sodium ions out of the epithelium cells of the small intestine

Co-transport - sodium and potassium ions transported in opposite directions.
Active transport -

14

Name the three chemicals that bind to a glucose co-transporter carrier protein

Sodium ion
Glucose
ATP

15

How many different co-transporter carrier proteins are need to transport all the different amino acids into the epithelium cells of the the small intestine

One for each type of amino acid ie 20