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Flashcards in Abx Deck (42):
1

Tigacycline: drug class and MOA

-tetracycline - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Enter cell via passive diffusion or active transport. Reversibly bind ribosomal 30S subunit and prevent
binding of tRNA and protein synthesis. May also alter cytoplasmic membranes to increase leakage; inhibit mammalian protein synthesis at high levels. Bacteriostatic, can be bactericidal with high doses, susceptible organisms.

2

Delafloxacin: drug class and MOA

-fluoroquinolone
-MOA: DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV inhibitors. Bacterial chromosome must be tightly supercoiled to preserve space within the cell. DNA-gyrase (topoisomerase II) removes the excess positive supercoiling that builds up ahead of the DNA replication fork, as a result of enzymes replicating DNA. Without this, excess positive supercoiling would ultimately arrest DNA replication. Topoisomerase IV: helps separate the daughter DNA molecules.

3

Daptomycin: Drug class and MOA

-Cyclic lipopeptide - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-Binds to bacterial membranes causes a rapid depolarization of the cell membrane (potassium efflux) inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis and cell death

4

Cefotetan: drug class and MOA

-2nd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

5

Telavancin: drug class and MOA

-Glycopeptide - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Binds to d-ala-d-ala in Stage 1, prevents further growth of peptidoglycan and cross-linking

6

Ticarcillin and clavulanic acid: drug class and MOA

-PCN and B lactamase inhibitor - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

7

Fosfomycin: Drug class and MOA

-Enolpyruvyl transferase inhibitor - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-Inactivation of the enzyme enolpyruvyl transferase blocks
formation of UDP-N-acetylmuramic acid blocks first steps in bacterial cell wall synthesis.

8

Ertapenem: drug class and MOA

-Carbapenem - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

9

Tobramicin: drug class and MOA

-Aminoglycosides
-MOA: Passive diffusion across outer membrane via porin channels → active transport across cell membrane (enhanced by cell wall active drugs) → binds 30S ribosome; interfere in initiation of peptide formation and induce misreading of mRNA → irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Bactericidal

10

Tetracycline: drug class and MOA

-tetracycline - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Enter cell via passive diffusion or active transport. Reversibly bind ribosomal 30S subunit and prevent
binding of tRNA and protein synthesis. May also alter cytoplasmic membranes to increase leakage; inhibit mammalian protein synthesis at high levels. Bacteriostatic, can be bactericidal with high doses, susceptible organisms.

11

Demeclocycline: drug class and MOA

-tetracycline - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Enter cell via passive diffusion or active transport. Reversibly bind ribosomal 30S subunit and prevent
binding of tRNA and protein synthesis. May also alter cytoplasmic membranes to increase leakage; inhibit mammalian protein synthesis at high levels. Bacteriostatic, can be bactericidal with high doses, susceptible organisms.

12

Aztreonam: drug class and MOA

-Monobactam - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

13

Gentamicin: drug class and MOA

-Aminoglycosides
-MOA: Passive diffusion across outer membrane via porin channels → active transport across cell membrane (enhanced by cell wall active drugs) → binds 30S ribosome; interfere in initiation of peptide formation and induce misreading of mRNA → irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Bactericidal

14

Doripenem: drug class and MOA

-Carbapenem - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

15

Nafcillin: drug class and MOA

-B lactam resistant PCN - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

16

Neropenem: drug class and MOA

-Carbapenem - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

17

Minocycline: drug class and MOA

-tetracycline - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Enter cell via passive diffusion or active transport. Reversibly bind ribosomal 30S subunit and prevent
binding of tRNA and protein synthesis. May also alter cytoplasmic membranes to increase leakage; inhibit mammalian protein synthesis at high levels. Bacteriostatic, can be bactericidal with high doses, susceptible organisms.

18

Cefoxitin: drug class and MOA

-2nd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

19

Glycopeptide MOA

-Cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-Glycopeptide; Binds to d-ala-d-ala in Stage 1, prevents further growth of peptidoglycan and cross-linking

20

Cefpodoxime: drug class and MOA

-3rd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

21

Ozenoxacin ointment: drug class and MOA

-fluoroquinolone
-MOA: DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II) and topoisomerase IV inhibitors. Bacterial chromosome must be tightly supercoiled to preserve space within the cell. DNA-gyrase (topoisomerase II) removes the excess positive supercoiling that builds up ahead of the DNA replication fork, as a result of enzymes replicating DNA. Without this, excess positive supercoiling would ultimately arrest DNA replication. Topoisomerase IV: helps separate the daughter DNA molecules.

22

Cefepime: drug class and MOA

-4th gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

23

Cefuroxime: drug class and MOA

-2nd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

24

Ampicillin and sulbactam: drug class and MOA

-PCN and B lactamase inhibitor - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

25

Tedizolid: drug class and MOA

-oxazolidinone - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Bind directly with the 23S ribosome on the 50S ribosomal subunit. Unique MOA – no cross resistance with other protein synthesis inhibitors

26

Piperacillin: drug class and MOA

-Antipseudomonal - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

27

Dicloxacillin: drug class and MOA

-B lactam resistant PCN - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

28

Cefotaxime: drug class and MOA

-3rd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

29

Clarithromycin: drug class and MOA

-macrolides/azolides/ketolides - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Reversibly binds to 50S subunit of the ribosome, resulting in inhibition of translocation of tRNA and thus blockage of transpeptidation reactions. Bacteriostatic; bactericidal in high conc or for highly susceptible organisms. Penetrates gr (+) > gr (-)bacteriostatic, bactericidal in highly susceptible organisms

30

Ampicillin: drug class and MOA

-Aminopenicillin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

31

Neomycin: drug class and MOA

-Aminoglycosides
-MOA: Passive diffusion across outer membrane via porin channels → active transport across cell membrane (enhanced by cell wall active drugs) → binds 30S ribosome; interfere in initiation of peptide formation and induce misreading of mRNA → irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Bactericidal

32

cefaclor: drug class and MOA

-2nd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

33

Erythromycin: drug class and MOA

-macrolides/azolides/ketolides - protein synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Reversibly binds to 50S subunit of the ribosome, resulting in inhibition of translocation of tRNA and thus blockage of transpeptidation reactions. Bacteriostatic; bactericidal in high conc or for highly susceptible organisms. Penetrates gr (+) > gr (-)bacteriostatic, bactericidal in highly susceptible organisms

34

Cefixime: drug class and MOA

-3rd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

35

Ceftaroline: drug class and MOA

-5th gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

36

Cefdinir: drug class and MOA

-3rd gen cephalosporin - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

37

Dalbavancin: drug class and MOA

-Glycopeptide - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Binds to d-ala-d-ala in Stage 1, prevents further growth of peptidoglycan and cross-linking

38

Oritavancin: drug class and MOA

-Glycopeptide - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA: Binds to d-ala-d-ala in Stage 1, prevents further growth of peptidoglycan and cross-linking

39

Ticarcillin: drug class and MOA

-antipseudomonal - cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-MOA PCN

40

Cephalosporin MOA

-Cell wall synthesis inhibitor
-Same as PCN

41

Penicillin MOA

Cell wall synthesis inhibitor
a. PCN natural analog of D-ala-D-ala 

b. Penicillin binding proteins (PBP's): enzymes that remove terminal alanine to crosslink with neighboring peptide 

c. Penicillins inhibit this transpeptidation by covalently binding to PBP's, blocking transpeptidation and inhibiting peptidoglycan synthesis within the bacterial cell wall 

d. Leads to bacterial cell lysis and death 

e. Bactericidal 


42

Amikacin: drug class and MOA

-Aminoglycosides
-MOA: Passive diffusion across outer membrane via porin channels → active transport across cell membrane (enhanced by cell wall active drugs) → binds 30S ribosome; interfere in initiation of peptide formation and induce misreading of mRNA → irreversible inhibition of protein synthesis. Bactericidal