Flashcards in AC 2.3 Explain Mechanisms Of Impulse Propagation Deck (15):
What is a neurone?
Specialised cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses
What is resting potential / state? (-70mV)
1. Neuron is not conducting impulse (POLARISED)
2. Inside neurone more -ve charged than outside
3. Neuron becomes polarised due to movement of Na+ and K+ ions across cell membrane
What is a threshold potential?
1. To generate an AP, an axon requires a stimulus of a certain minimum strength (-55mV)
What is an action potential / depolarisation?
Rapid reversal of membrane potential
What is the all or nothing principle?
Each AP has same amplitude regardless of the strength of the stimulus
What is the refractory period?
A second action potential cannot occur during this period as the channels are still open
What is hyperpolarisation?
Membrane potential increases, becoming more negative than resting potential (-70mV)
What is absolute refractory period?
Second stimulus (no matter how strong) will not excite the neurone
What is relative refractory period?
A stronger than normal stimulus needed to elicit neuronal excitation
Explain each component of an AP graph
1. Up: Na+ channels open, Na+ enters cell
2. Up: K+ channels open
3. Peak: Na+ channels close, No more Na+ enters cell
4. Down: K+ leaves cell, causes membrane potential to return to resting potential
5. Down: K+ channels close
6. Overshoot: Extra K+ outside diffuses away
What is a graded potential?
1. Changes in membrane potential that vary in size, as opposed to being all-or-none.
2. Arise from summation of individual actions of ligand-gated ion channel proteins, decreasing over time and space.
3. Magnitude of a graded potential is determined by the strength of the stimulus.
What are the effects of myelination?
1. Myelination: process coating axon of each neuron with fatty coating called myelin
2. Protects neurone, helps it conduct signals more efficiently via Saltatory conduction.
How does an impulse pass down the neurone?
1. Only cells with excitable membranes can generate APs (neuron, muscle)
2. Depolarisation > repolarisation > hyperpolarisation
3. At trigger zone, Na+ channels open, membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions and AP occurs
Explain the Na+/K+ pump
- Na+ ions naturally leak into neurons through ion channels
- K+ ions naturally leak out
- membrane more permeable to K+ than Na+
- activity of the pump moves the ions against their conc. gradient, maintaining a membrane potential of -70mV