ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS 2B Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS 2B Deck (39)
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1

Definition of an acid

Proton donor - releases H+ ions when in aqueous solution

2

Definition of a strong and weak acid

Strong is fully dissociated in solution
Weak is partially dissociated in solution

3

What is the link between strength of acids and the concentration of H+ ions?

The weaker the acid is, the lower proportion of the acid is dissociated, and so there is a lower concentration of H+ ions in the solution.

4

How is a strong acid generally written?

HA(aq) -> H(aq)+ + A(aq)-

5

How is a weak acid generally written?

HA(aq) EQUILIBRIUM ARROWS H(aq)+ + A(aq)-

6

Definition of a base

Proton acceptor

7

Name the types of bases and how they are bases

Metal hydroxides - accepts H+ to become water
Metal oxides - accepts H+ to become OH- (soluble oxide)
- accepts 2H+ to become water
Ammonia/amino compounds - N forms a dative bond with H+ ion

8

How can water act as a base?

H+ +H2O -> H3O+ (hydronium ion)

9

How can water act as an acid?

H2O -> OH- + H+

10

Definition of an alkali

Soluble base that releases OH- ions in water

11

Definition of a salt

Ionic compounds formed when the H+ ions in acids are replaced by metal ions or ammonium ions

12

Acid + Metal hydroxide

Salt + Water

13

Acid + Metal oxide

Salt + Water

14

Acid + Metal carbonate

Salt + Water + Carbon dioxide

15

Acid + reactive metal

Salt + Hydrogen

16

Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points?

A lot of energy is needed to break the strong electrostatic forces of attraction between oppositely charged ions.

17

Why do ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or in aqueous solution?

When molten, ions are free to move as mobile charge carriers.

18

Why do ionic compounds dissolve in polar solvents?

Polar molecules break down the lattice structure and surround the ions in solution. If the compound has larger charges, they are less soluble.

19

Why are ionic compounds hard crystalline substances?

Made up of ions that are strongly attracted to each other by electrostatic forces

20

Soluble or insoluble - K

Soluble

21

Soluble or insoluble - Na

Soluble

22

Soluble or insoluble - NH4+

Soluble

23

Soluble or insoluble - Halides

Soluble except when combined with Ag+,Pb2+,Hg+

24

Soluble or insoluble - Nitrates

Soluble

25

Soluble or insoluble - Sulfates

Soluble except when combined with Ag+,Pb2+,Ca2+,Sr2+,Ba2+

26

Soluble or insoluble - Carbonates

Insoluble except when combined with Na, K, NH4+

27

Soluble or insoluble - Oxides

Insoluble except when combined with Group 1 or NH4+

28

Soluble or insoluble - Phosphates

Insoluble except when combined with Group 1 or NH4+

29

Soluble or insoluble - Hydroxides

Insoluble except when combined with Group 1 or NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Sr2+, Ba2+

30

Soluble or insoluble - Sulfides

Insoluble except when combined with Group 1 or NH4+