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Flashcards in Add Biology Deck (241):
1

What is a whip like tail called on a bacteria

A flagellum

2

How does a flagellum help bacteria

It helps them move

3

Function of the nucleus

Contains genetic material controlled the activities of the cell

4

Function of the cytoplasm

Most chemical processes take place here, controlled by enzymes

5

Function I the cell membrane

Controls movement of substances in and out of the cell

6

Function of the mitochondria

Most energy is released through respiration here

7

Function of ribosomes

Protein synthesis happens here

8

What part of cells produce protein

Ribosomes

9

What is the function of cell walls

Strengthens plant cells

10

What is the function of chloroplasts

Contains chlorophyll which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis

11

What is the function of the permanent vacuole

Filled with cell sap to help keep the cell turgid

12

What does turgid mean in a biology context

Enlarged and awoken with water

13

Which two inventors are credited for creating the first microscope

Hand and saccharides Janssen

14

What was the problem with early microscopes

They did not magnify to a great extent

15

How many times can modern light microscopes magnify

1500 times

16

How many times can an electron microscope magnify

Two million times

17

How has the improvement of microscopes led to scientific discoveries

Has allowed scientists to see small things such as cells in much greater detail
As a result our understanding of their function has improved

18

How can we calculate the length of a magnified object

Length of object=length of magnified object/magnification

19

What are enzymes

Large molecules that speed up the chemical reactions inside cells, each type of enzyme does one specific job

20

What are enzymes

Long chains of protein

21

What are proteins made of

Long chains of amino acids

22

What is aerobic respiration

Where does it take place.

Aerobic desperation is our main source of energy

It takes place in the mitochondria

23

What are mitochondria

What's in them

Where are they in the body

Oval structures with a folded inner membrane

They have a large number of different enzymes inside them. Responsible for different stages of respiration

They are found in large numbers in places like the liver and muscles-places that need a lot of energy

24

What are enzymes

Soluble protein molecules that speed up chemical reactions

25

What are the compact structures which contain DNA

Chromosomes

26

What is the shape of DNA

The double helix

27

How are the two strands of a DNA double helix held together

Hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases

28

How does a cell make a duplicate copy of each DNA molecule

The bonds between the two strands of DNA break. The strands unwind new bases then join each old strand to make two new double helix eps

29

What are the three steps of the duplication of the old DNA helix

DNA spiral unzips

Free nucleotides lock onto bases

Two copies of the original spiral are formed

30

How do the order of the bases in DNA control protein

Each amino acid has its own code of three bases, each time the same three bases are in the genetic code the same amino acid is added to the chain to make a protein

31

What is the experiment for extracting DNA from cells

Peas

Salt water and detergent are added to mashed up peas

This mixture is left at sixty degrees for fifteen minutes

Then filter the mixture

Pour iced ethanol on the filtrate, the DNA will float to the surface

32

What are the steps in order to the discovery of the DNA molecule

Rosalind franklin and Maurice Wilkins studied and photod X-rays of DNA

James Watson and Francis crick worked out the three d structure of the molecule

Everyone except for franklin won Nobel prizes because she died

33

What was the human genome project

A project to find the order of all the three billion base pairs in humans

To develop faster methods for sequencing DNA

34

When was the human genome sequencing finished

Two thousand and one

35

Why did the human genome project use several people

To get an average sequence

36

Scientists from how many countries collaborated to work on the Hgp

18

37

How is the human genome project useful

Improved genetic testing

Location of genes which are linked to encreased chance of inheriting a disease

New gene therapy treatments

New knowledge of how humans have evolved

Personalised medicines

38

Who invented genetic fingerprinting

Sir alleviated Jeffrey's

39

How does genetic fingerprinting work

It uses small genetic differences to make a picture like a bar code

40

What are the two differences between cloning and genetic engineering

Cloning

Produces exact copy's

Genes are copied within the same species

Genetic engineering

Ptoduces a unique set of genes

Genes can be swapped across species

41

How gm works

Enzymes cut DNA containing a certain gene from one organism

And join them into a gap in the DNA of another organism

42

What is an example of genetic modification

Bacteria modified to produce insulin

43

How are bacteria modified to produce insulin

Steps.

Restriction enzyme cuts out the gene that produces insulin

Enzyme cuts bacteria plasmid an inserts human insulin gene into the gap

Bacteria produces insulin

44

Three examples of genetically modified plants and animals to vena fit humans

Gm insulin

Golden rice produces extra beta carotene used to make vitamin a

Herbicide resistant crops

45

Positives of gm insulin

Is easier to create high quantities

Less likely to cause an adverse reaction

Overcomes ethical concerns from vegetarians

46

Negatives of golden rice

Fears it will cross breed with wild rice

Worries that gm organisms might harm people

Beta carotene levels aren't high enough to make a difference

Are expensive

47

Possible disadvantages to herbicide resistant crops

Potential development of herbicide resistant weeds

Loss of biodiversity as fever weeds survive to provide shelter for animals

48

Who invented the periodic table

Dmitri Mendeleev

49

What are the two types of DNA in bacteria called

Plasmid and chromosomal

50

What's the benefit of humans being multi cellular
Three

Cells can be specialised to do certain things

Groups of cells can function as organs making a more efficient but complex organism

The organism can grow very large

51

What does it mean if a cell is diploid

It has two of each chromosome

52

What is mitosis

The type of cell division used for growth repair and asexual reproduction

53

What does mitosis produce

Two cells that are identical to each other and it's parent cell

54

What are the four steps of mitosis

Chromosomes in nucleus are copied.

Chromatids pulled apart and moved towards poles

Chromosomes separate

Cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells

55

Why is cell division in multi cellular organisms necessary

The larger the cell becomes the smaller it's surface area to volume ratio becomes. Objects with a small range find it difficult to maintain exchange of materials with their environment. Large cells could run out of oxygen and accumulate too much waste like co2

56

What is all reproduction in humans

Sexual

57

What is a haploid cell

When a cell has half the usual amount of genetic material

58

What are the cells that combine to form the zygote called

Gametes

59

How many chromosomes do human zygotes contain

46

60

How many chromosomes do human gametes contain

23

61

What is the type of cell division that produces gametes called

Meiosis

62

What is responsible for causing genetic variation

Meiosis

63

What is a gamete

A cell with half the normal amount of chromosomes only used for reproduction

64

What is a zygote

Cell formed when two gametes combine

65

What is fertilisation in reproduction

Term to describe the joining of two gametes

66

What is a haploid

Having half the normal amount of chromosomes

67

Diploid

Having the normal amount of chromosomes

68

What are adaptions to the sperm gamete to help it perform it's job

They have a tail to propel them

Many mitochondria for energy

The front of the sperm contains enzymes to digest the egg membrane

69

What are adaptions to the egg gamete to help it perform it's job

Has a large food store to support the developing zygote until it can feed from the placenta

70

7 steps of meiosis

Parent cell

Chromosomes make identical copy's of themselves

Similar chromosomes pair up

Sections of DNA get swapped

Pairs of chromosomes divide

Chromosomes divide

Four genetically different haploid daughter cells produced

71

Which process of cell division is used in asexual reproduction

Mitosis

72

Which plants can do asexual reproduction

A potato plant can many tubers which each of which can grow into a new plant

Strawberry and spider plants produce long stems with tiny plants on the end these runners can produce several new plants from one parent

73

What are the steps of cloning

Removal of a diploid nucleus from a body cell

Emu elation of an egg cell (take out the nucleus)

Insertion of diploid nucleus into the emu cleated egg cell

Electrical stimulation of the diploid nucleus to divide by meiosis

74

What is an example of cloning

Dolly the sheep

75

Ethical issues surrounding cloning

Two

Restriction of cloning humans also restricts scientific research

Cloning plants is done all the time and causes the public less ethical and moral concerns

76

How are cows cloned using embryo transplants
5 steps

Sperm is taken from a bull in a high yield dairy herd

Cow is artificially inseminated with sperm

Zygotes develop into embryos in cow and then removed from uterus

Embryos are split into several smaller embryos each of which can grow into a new calf

Embryos are placed into the uteruses of foster mums



77

How would we go about genetically modifying pigs to grow human organs

The pigs would have human genes inserted into their cells so the organs would not be rejected when transplanted into human bodies

Once the insertion of human genes had been done we would clone the pig as this is less hard than inserting human genes

78

Two disadvantages to cloning

If a clone is susceptible to disease or changes in environment then all the clones will be susceptible

It will lead to less variation and less opportunity to create new varieties in the future

79

Two advantages to cloning

All the new organisms are identical- they will all have the desired characteristics

Organisms that are difficult or slow to breed can be reproduced very quickly. Some plants do not produce seeds others lie dormer for a long time

80

4 things stem cells can be used for

Making new brain cells to treat people with Parkinson's

Rebuilding bones and cartilage

Repairing damaged immune systems

Making replacement heart valves

81

What is therapeutic cloning

Cloning one of your cells to produce an embryo then taking stem cells from this for your use

82

What are the six steps to therapeutic cloning

Nucleus taken out of human egg cell

Nucleus from patients cell put into the egg cell

Egg cell stimulated to develope into an embryo

Stem cells taken from the embryo

Stem cells grown in a container of warm nutrients

Stem cells treated to grow into required cell types

83

To enable genes to code for proteins the bases Atgc get to get her in triplets

Each protein is made up of large numbers of amino acid molecules

Each triplet of bases codes for an amino acid



Amino acids are made in the order and number dictated by the base triplets

Amino acids join together a long chain to make a protein molecule the number and sequence of amino acids determines which protein results

84

What is transcription

The first part of the process of making protein
It takes place inside the cell nucleus
Transcription involves copying the DNA

85

What are the steps of transcription

The DNA unzips so that both genes are separate one strand is used as a template

Complimentary bases attach to the strand being coded

Thymine base t is not present and a different bace u joins with a in the way that t would have done

This forms a strand of messenger RNA

86

What replaces t in transcription

U

87

What do ribosome's do

Make protein to be used inside the cell

88

What takes place in translation

This is when the messenger RNA is 'interpreted'

89

What are the stages of translation

6

The mRNA attaches to a ribosome
The ribosome reads the mRNA

The ribosome decodes the mRNA in groups of three
Base triplets or codons which are complimentary to bases in transfer RNA

The tRNA is specific to an amino acid that collects and returns to the mRNA

Bonds form between the amino acids and polypeptide Is formed

The polypeptide chain folds up and becomes a specific shape forming a protein

90

What is the part of the enzyme molecule that matches the substrate called

The active site

91

What is the chemical that an enzyme reacts with called

The substrate

92

How fast are enzymes reactions at cold temperatures

Slow

93

Do enzymes reactions speed up as they heat up

Up to a point
After the optimum temp has been passed it slows down the reaction speed

94

What ph do most enzymes work best at

Neutral conditions

95

What is the relationship between substrate concentration and enzyme reaction speed

The higher the concentration of substrate the faster the reaction-up to a point

96

What is it called when enzymes break down due to heat

Denaturing

97

What is the name for the fact enzymes can only do one job due to their shape

The lock and key mechanism

98

Where does aerobic respiration occur

Mitochondria

99

What is the word equation for aerobic respiration

Gucose+oxygen=>carbon dioxide+water

100

What is the energy made in respiration used for

Used to make large molecules from small ones

To allow muscles to contract

To maintain a constant body temp

101

Which way do arteries carrie blood

Away from the heart

102

Which way do veins carry blood

To the heart

103

What are the tiny blood vessels that are close to the body's cells called

Capillaries

104

In what blood vessel does diffusion occur

Capillaries

105

How does the rate of carbon dioxide diffusion have to change during exercise

Oxygen and glucose must be delivered to cells more quickly

Waste co2 must be removed more quickly

106

When does anaerobic respiration occur

When the body can't get oxygen to the blood quickly enough

107

What is the word equation for anaerobic respiration

Glucose=>lactic acid

108

What are the negatives of anaerobic respiration

Energy output is much lower

Lactic acid that forms in muscles cause pain

109

What is the oxygen dept built up after exercise called

Excess post exercise oxygen dept

EPOC

110

Why is an oxygen dept built up after exercise

It is because glucose is not broken down properly to form carbon dioxide and water some of it is broken down as lactic acid

Panting after exercise provides oxygen to break down the lactic acid

111

Why does an increased heart rate help break down lactic acid

It allows lactic acid to be carried away from the blood to the liver where it is broken down

112

Why is blood being carried away from the heart in arteries under pressure

Because of the heart contracting

113

What is the name for the high pressure measurement when the heart contracts

Systolic pressure

114

What is the name for the lower measurement of pressure between heart beats

Diastolic pressure

115

What is plops pressure measured in

Millimetres of mercury

mmHg

116

A young healthy person may have a blood pressure of 120 over 70 what does this say about their two types of blood pressure

Their diastolic pressure is 70 mmHg

Their systolic pressure is 120mmHg

117

What are the lifestyle factors blood pressure varies by

Five

Diet
Stress
Exercise
Body mass
Alcohol consumption

118

What is the process in which water evaporates in the leaves resulting in more water being drawn up from the roots

Transpiration

119

What is the function of leaves

Photosynthesis

120

What is the stem like tissue that runs through the centre of leaves called

The midrib mid.....rib
Remember that

121

What is the thin green tissue on leaves called

The blade

122

What are the small stems that come out of the midrib on leaves called

The veins

123

What is an adaption to help leaves absorb more light

Large surface area

124

What is an adaption to make the distance for carbon dioxide to diffuse into cells short

Leaves are thin

125

What is an adaption that makes leaves able to absorb sunlight to transfer energy into chemicals

Chlorophyll

126

What is the adaption of leaves to be able to transport water and carbohydrates and to add support

Network of veins

127

What is the part that allows leaves to diffuse carbon dioxide into it

The stomata

128

What is another name for stomata

Epidermis

129

Where are the stomata on leaves

Underneath
No waxy layer to block gas flow

130

What are the two cells that surround the stomata called

The guard cells

131

What is the palisade layer of cells used for

Photosynthesis

132

What is the adaption to help more light to reach the palisade cells

The epidermis is thin and transparent

133

What is the adaption to protect the leaves but not block out light

Thin cuticle made of wax

134

Leggy is the palisade layer near the surface

To absorb more light

135

What is the reason for the sponges layer in leaves

It spaces allow carbon dioxide to diffuse through the leaf through the stomata and to encores aw surface area

136

Why do palisade cells contain many chloroplast

To absorb all the available light

137

What are the three things that can limit the speed of photosynthesis

Light intensity

Carbon dioxide concentration

Temperature

138

How do farmers increase the rate of photosynthesis

Burn paraffin lamps to increase co2 levels

Use artificial light so crops can grow beyond daylight

139

How does water get taken out of leaves in transpiration

Diffusion

140

Which type of tube is used in transpiration

Xylem

141

What makes a constant flow of minerals from roots to leaves

Xylem cells make a continuous tube

142

How is transpiration naturally slowed down in plants when they are low on water

Wilting

143

How are plants transpiration rates slowed unnaturally

Removing leaves through cuttings before they have a chance to grow new roots

144

How does light affect transpiration

Increases with light as the stomata open wider to increase carbon dioxide for photosynthesis

145

How does temp affect transpiration

It increases the rate as evaporation and diffusion are faster in warm conditions

146

How does wind affect transpiration rate

Faster in wind, water vapour is removed more quickly by wind speeding up diffusion

147

How does humidity affect transpiration

Slower when humid

The leaf is already surrounded by moist air, diffusion is the movement of a high concentration to a low concentration

148

What does the xylem do

Moves water and solutes

149

What does the phloem do

Moves good substances from leaves to the rest of the plant

150

Why are the phloem and xylem near the edge of the stem

To resist compression and bending forces

151

Why are the phloem and xylem in the centre of the root

To resist bending and stretching forces

152

What is the difference in the movement of food or water from flown to xylem

Phloem uses translocation xylem uses transpiration

153

What is the difference between the phloem and xylems tubes

Xylem columns of dead hollow reinforced cells

Phloem columns of living cells

154

In what process do plants absorb water from the soil

Part of transpiration

Osmosis

155

What part of the plant does osmosis

Root hair cells

156

How are root hair cells adapted to osmosis

They have a large surface area to speed up osmosis

157

What is the word for the movement of the water through the roots to the rest of the plant after osmosis

Transportation

158

Why is water used for in plants

Four points

Reactant in photo synthesis

Supports leaves and shoots by keeping cells rigid

It cools the leaves by evaporation

Transports dissolved minerals around the plant

159

How are leaves adapted to photosynthesis

Two

Large surface area

Have stomata holes for carbon dioxide

160

How do leaves prevent too much water loss

Two

A wax cuticle to stop water escaping through the epidermis

Less stomata on their top surface to reduce water loss

161

How are plants in dry conditions stomata adapted

They are very small and only at the bottom of the leaf to reduce water loss

162

What happens to guard cells in low light

They loss their water to become flaccid causing the stomata to close

Preserves water

163

Why do plants wilt when in contact with sea water

Osmosis causes loss of water due to the high solution

164

What is the fact plant cells are hard called

Turgid

165

What does turgidity of plants do

Supports their weight

166

Why do plants wilt

If the plant loses water faster than it can be absorbed it loses turgid pressure and becomes flaccid

167

Define osmosis

A movement of a substance from a high concentration area to a low concentration area through a partially permissible membrane

168

What is biodiversity

The variety in different species living in an area

169

What are the first two thing a scientist will want to know about a species present

Where it is found
Distribution

The number of that organism present
Population

170

How do scientists overcome the fact they can not sample an entire environment in detail

They sample a small section or portion

Sampling several small sectors is representative to the whole area

171

What is a pooter

A small insect catcher. The breather sucks on the end of a tube and it sucks the insect up

172

What is a sweep net

A net used in areas of long grass to catch organisms

Can also be used in ponds

173

What is a pitfall trap

Used to catch small crawling insects

Pretty much a cup in a hole with some wood over it

174

What is a quadrate

Square frames of a known size use to sample all the plant species in one area

175

What is a light intensity meter

A device that measures light intensity

176

What is a ph probe

A ph measurer

Sometimes also tests temp

177

What is the order of development from the beginning of life to now

Animals now are more developed because we have had more time for evolution

Proven by fossils old to new

178

What are the three things that slow the decaying process helping to preserve tissues

Insufficient oxygen eg organism trapped in Amber

Low temp eg organism frozen in a glacier

High soil acidity eg when an animal falls into a peat bog

179

What are some difficulties in tracing the story of evolution

Three

Big gaps in fossil records

Soft tissues decay scientists have to guess what animals looked like

Lots of fossils not yet found

180

What is the pentadactyl limb

Five fingered

181

Most vertebrates have pentadactyl limbs what does this suggest

We all descended from a common ancestor

182

What is a case study for an animal that has lost its pentadactyl limbs

A horse

183

What are the three vena fits of being multicellular

Cells can be specialised to do specific tasks

Groups of cells can function as organs making a more efficient but complex organism

The organism can grow very large

184

Where does growth mainly occur in plants

Shoots

Specialised growth zones like buds

Root tips

185

Where does growth occur in animals

New cells can be made by most tissues

186

How does growth occur in plants

Size increase often caused by absorbing water into the vacuole

187

How does growth occur in animals

Increase in the number of cells

188

Can plant cells differentiate into any cell

Yes most can

189

Can animal cells differentiate into any cell

No only stem cells can do this

190

What are stem cells

Undifferentiated cells that can turn into different tissues

191

How is human growth measured

Using percentile graphs

192

What does blood consist of

Plasma

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

193

What does blood plasma do

Transports dissolved substances around the body

194

What sort of substances does blood plasma carry around the body

Hormones

Nutrients-water. Glucose. Amino acids.
Minerals and vitamins.

Waste substances such as carbon dioxide and urea.

195

What do red blood cells contain to help them carry oxygen

Haemoglobin

196

What do platelets do

Cause clotting to stop bleeding when blood vessels are cut

197

What is the definition of tissues

A group of cells with a similar structure and function which work together to perform a particular job

198

Five examples of tissues

Muscle
Lining of the intestine
Lining of the lungs
Phloem
Root hair tissue

199

Give def of an organ

A group of different tissues which work together to perform a particular job

200

Give six examples of organs

Heart
Lung
Stomach
Brain
Leaf
Root

201

HIV def of an organ system

A group of fife rant organs which all work together to do a particular job

202

Give six examples of organ systems

Circulatory system
Respiratory system
Digestive system
Nervous system
Reproductive system
Leaf canopy

203

What is the name for the fact that the blood on the left side of the heart and the right side of the heart is kept separate

Double circulation

204

What is the aorta

The body's largest artery

Takes oxigen aged blood from the left ventricle to the body

205

What is the pulmonary artery

Carries blood from the right vent rival to the lungs

206

Right atrium

Receives detoxing instead blood from the body

207

Pulmonary vein

Takes oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium

208

Left ventricle

Pumps oxigen acted blood into the aorta

209

Right ventricle

Pumps deoxygenated blood into the pulmonary artery

210

Coronary vessels

Supply the heart muscle with its blood supply

211

Arteries

Carry blood away from the heart

212

Veins

Carry blood to the heart

213

Bicuspid valve

Valve between left atrium and lady ventricle

214

Tricuspid valve

Valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

215

Vena cava

The largest vein in the body

It carries blood from body back to heart

216

Which seven blood vessels and tubes etc etc does deoxygenated blood flow through

Vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid
Right ventricle
Semilunar
Pulmonary artery
Lungs

217

Which seven parts of the body does oxygenated blood flow through

Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Bicuspid
Left vent rival
Semilunar
Aorta
Body

218

Why does the left ventricle have a thicker wall than the right

It has a higher pressure because it pumps

219

What is the problem with narrow rigid arteries

Need more pressure to pump blood through them

Increased blood pressure leads to heart problems over time

Cholesterol leads to this a change in diet can solve the problem

220

What are the problems with leaking heart valves

Make blood circulation inefficient

Can be replaced in open heart surgery with donor valves or mechanical valves

221

What problems occur due to a faulty pacemaker

Irregular beating of the heart causes inefficiency

222

What are the problems associated with mechanical or electrical heart components

Rejection by the immune system

Finding a way to reduce the size of the components to fit

Providing a power supply

223

What are the problems with transplants

Difficult to find suitable donors with healthy hearts that match the tissue types of patients

People need to take drugs to prevent their immune system rejecting
Encreas end chance of rejection

224

What are the circulatory systems parts and their use

The heart is the pump that keeps blood flow going

Arteries carrie blood away from the heart

Veins carry blood to the heart

Capillaries are close to cells they exchange materials with them

225

How is food moved through the digestive system

Peristalsis squeezing of longitudinal muscles to move food

226

Which enzyme catalyses starch to augers

Amylase

227

Which enzyme catalyses proteins to amino acids

Protease

228

Which enzyme catalyses lipids to fatty acids and glycerol

Lipase

229

Where is amylase produced

The salivary glands

230

Where is protease produced

Stomach pan crease and small intestine

231

Where is lipase produced

Pancreas and small intestine

232

What are lipids broken into by lipase

Fatty acids and glycerol

233

What does bile do

Neutralises the food after it has been in the stomach as this helps enzymes work
It also emulsified fats to provide a larger surface area for the lipase to work

234

Where is bile produced

Where is bile stored

Produced in liver

Stored by gall bladder

235

Where are digested food molecules absorbed

The small intestine

236

How is the small intestine adapted to help absorb food

Has a large surface area due to hair like vili

The wall of the small intestine is thin

The wall also contains many capillaries to transport food

237

What do villi do

encrease the small intestines surface area and absorb food

238

What is the process in which food goes into the blood stream through villi called

Diffusion

239

What do manufacturers claim probiotics do

Improve the digestive system

Help defend disease

Reducing allergies

240

What are prebiotics

Food for probiotic bacteria

241

In what conditions do the enzymes in the small intestine work best

Alkaline