Flashcards in ADHD Deck (19):
when and how does ADHD start according to diagnostics?
before age 12. in multiple settings, and must cause social dysfunction
what is necessary for diagnosis
6 or more symptoms for 6 months or more. poor attention to details - mistakes, cannot sustain attention, does not listen, does not follow through, doe snot organize, avoids tasks, loses things, is distracted, is forgetful,
fidgets, leaves seat, runs/climbs, not quiet, talks a lot, blurts out, cannot wait turn, interrupts.
course of the disease
most apparent at young age when norms are not met, milder more inattentive symptoms might not be seen until work load becomes greater. inattentiveness persists until later than hyperactivity/impulsivity
what chromosome is involved?
what end of the U shaped curve is ADHD on?
it is on the left, where there is less NT activity
are there neurodevelopmental disorders with ADHD
yes, there seems to be a lag of neurodevelopment that is 2 years behind normal functioning.
there seems to be a decrease in the functioning of the anterior cingulate cortexes/
what NT are involved?
NE and DA decreased functions. both in PFC
environmental factors in ADHD etiology
cigarette or alcohol use in pregnancy, lead poisoning, head injuries, high sugar, food coloring additives,
what is the most prevalent disorder with ADHD
how to treat ADHD
stimulants or derivatives
how do stimulants treat ADHD
they increase DA and NE activity in the PFC.
what are the dangers of stimulants?
addiction, paranoia, misuse, stunt growth and weight loss.
alternatives for stimulant meds
atomoxetine (NRI) clonidine (ER), guanficine (ER). they are less efficacious but carry less risk. raise NE in the brain, but lower in the heart, may lower BP.
management of ADHD
behavioral modification and therapy. self control therapy, behavioral parent training, relaxation, education support, distraction control, attention stimulation, cognitive restructuring.
what therapies do preschoolers get?
CBT, amphetamines, methylphenidate
CBT, nonaddictive alternatives, amphetamines.