What is adnexal?
Adnexal means appendages, medically it refers to orbit, eyelids and lacrimal system
What are the categories of Adnexal tumours?
Orbital (including lacrimal)
What are the common types of benign eyelid tumours?
Squamous cell Papilloma
& Basal Cell Papilloma
What are the common types of malignant eyelid tumours?
90-95% Basal Cell Carcinoma (Split into nodular, ulcerative & Infiltrative) 2-5% are squamous cell carcinoma 1-2% are sebaceous Gland Carcinoma Malignant Melanoma
How we tell between different benign eyelid tumours?
Squamous cell papillomas may be pedunculated or sessile & have a raspberry texture
Basal Cell Papillomas are greasy, brown, flat and oval/round
Melanocytic Naevus are asymmetrical, irreuglar bordered, variegated in colour and growing.
How do we tell between different types of malignant eyelid tumour?
Basal cell carcinomas are non-pigmented & elevated with a pearly, rolled irregular border and telangectasia.
Can be nodular, ulcerative or infiltrative
Squamous cell carcinoma is a scaly surface over thick plaque, growing in weeks rather thanmonths and arises from pre-existing actinic keratosis (rough scaly patch from sun damage)
Sebasceous gland Carcinomas are yellowish due to lipid content and cause blepharitis and recurrent chalazion
What are blepharitis and chalazion?
Blepharitis - Inflammation around the edge of the eyelids
Chalazion is a swelling in the oily glands due to blockage from inflammation
What structures can be involved in an orbital tumour?
Extrinsic Eye Muscles
What are the common types of orbital tumours?
- Capillary Hemangioma
- Cavernous Hemangioma
- Pleomorphic Adenoma
- Optic Nerve Glioma
- Lacrimal Gland Carcinoma
- Primary Melanoma