Adult Health- Cancer- Chapters 21 and 22 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adult Health- Cancer- Chapters 21 and 22 Deck (96)
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1

What is cancer?

Results when normal cells mutate into abnormal, deviant cells that perpetuate within the body…can affect any body tissue

2

What does hypertrophy mean?

.Growth that causes tissue to increase in size by enlarging each cell

3

What does hyperplasia mean?

.Growth that causes tissue to increase in size by increasing the number of cells

4

What does neoplasia mean?

Any new or continued cell growth not needed for normal development or replacement of dead and damaged tissues

5

What does carcinogenesis mean?

.takes years and depends on several tumor and patient factors. Three interacting factors influence cancer development: exposure to carcinogens, genetic predisposition, and immune function

6

What does oncogenesis mean?

. Cancer development

7

Describe mitosis.

.is for one cell to reproduce into two new daughter cells, each of which is identical to the parent cell that started

8

What is primary prevention?

concerned with reducing cancer risk in healthy people= health diet and exercise- don't/quit smoking, use smoking, vaccines, avoid known carcinogens

9

What is secondary prevention?

prevention involves detection and screening to achieve early diagnosis and intervention-genetic testing, mammograms, , Self-breast exam, Self-testicular exam, Screening colonoscopy, Pap test

10

What does metastasis mean?

.spread of disease

11

What does chachexia mean?

, (extreme body wasting and malnutrition) develops from an imbalance between food intake and energy use

12

What does adjuvant mean?

sometimes called co-analgesics) are drugs that have a primary indication other than pain but are analgesic for some painful conditions

13

What does nadir mean?

period of greatest bone marrow suppression

14

What does cytotoxic mean?

are mostly those used in the treatment of cancer and autoimmune disorders. These drugs interfere with all rapidly dividing cells, especially the white blood cells (WBCs), which are responsible for providing immunity and protection against infection. The result is a decrease in the number of these important cells, especially the neutrophils, 345greatly increasing the patient's risk for infection.

15

What does extravasation mean?

drugs that cause severe tissue damage if they escape into the subcutaneous tissue

16

What does vesicant mean?

drugs that cause severe tissue damage if they escape into the subcutaneous tissue (extravasation).

17

What does muscositis mean?

sores in mucous membranes) often develops in the entire GI tract, especially in the mouth (stomatitis refers to reactions that involve the other tissues and structures in the oral cavity

18

What does stomatitis mean?

sores in mucous membranes) often develops in the entire GI tract, especially in the mouth (stomatitis refers to reactions that involve the other tissues and structures in the oral cavity

19

What does alopecia mean?

Hair loss

20

What is the highest mortality rate cancer?

lung cancer

21

What is the number one cancer for males?

prostate

22

what is the number one cancer for women?

breast

23

What does anaplasia mean?

loss of specific appearance of parent cells… will become *smaller* and rounder with *larger nucleus* than normal cell

24

What are the characteristics of malignant cells?

anaplasia, loss of regulation rate of mitosis, loss of special function (serves not useful purpose), loss of contact inhibition (invades other cells and migrates), progression of deviant cells, ability to promote its own survival

25

Describe benign cells.

Local, cohesive
Well-defined border
Slow growth
Encapsulated
Pushes other tissues out of way
Usually easily removed and does not recur

26

Describe malignant cells.

Invasive, non-cohesive
Invades/destroys surrounding tissue
Rapid growth
Mets to distant sites
Not always easy to remove, can recur

27

Describe the development of cancer.

Initiation
-Chemical carcinogens
-Physical carcinogens
-Genetic susceptibility
Promotion- proliferation of mitotic rate of the tissue of origin
Progression- evidence of clinical disease- evidence of regional spread and metastasis

28

Possible causes of cancer.

Viruses (table 21-7)
Chemical Agents (table 21-6)
Genetics
Dietary Factors (chart 21-1)
Hormones
Immune system
Age-related (chart 21-2

29

What does CAUTION mean?

Table of warning signs for cancer
-C-Change in bowel or bladder habits
-A- a sore that does not heal
-U- Unusual bleeding or discharge from the rectum, bladder, or vagina
-T- Thickening of breast tissue or a new lump in breast
-A- a lump in the testes
-I- Indigestion or trouble swallowing
-O- Obvious changes to moles or warts
-N- Nagging cough or hoarseness that persists for four to six weeks

30

What are some diagnostic studies for cancer?

biopsy, chest x-ray, cytology, bone marrow, MRI, mammorgram