Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Adverse Drug Reactions and Medication Errors Deck (13):
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Adverse drug reaction

Any noxious, unintended, and undesired effect that occurs at normal drug doses; excludes excessive dosages. Can range from annoying to life-threatening

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Problems with ADRs

Mild reactions: drowsiness, nausea, itching, and rash; Severe reactions (potentially fatal): respiratory depression, neutropenia, hepatocellular injury, hemorrhage
-Most common in the elderly and very young; risk increased by severe illness

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Terms related to adverse drug reactions

Side effect, toxicity, allergic reaction, idiosyncratic effect, iatrogenic disease, physical dependence, carcinogenic effect, teratogenic effect

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Side effect

A nearly unavoidable secondary drug effect produced at therapeutic doses; may develop soon after drug is initiated or not until drug has been taken for weeks or months

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Toxicity

Adverse drug reaction caused by excessive dosing; may occur even with normal dosing

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Allergic reaction

Immune response; determined primarily by the degree of sensitization of the immune system, not by drug dose. Pt's sensitivity to a drug can change over time

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Idiosyncratic effect

Uncommon drug response resulting from a genetic predisposition

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Iatrogenic disease

"A disease produced by a physician"; used to refer to a disease produced by drugs; sometimes also called drug-induced disease. Essentially identical to naturally occurring pathology

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Physical dependence

Develops during long-term use of certain drugs; a state in which the body has adapted to drug exposure in such a way that an abstinence syndrome will result if drug use is discontinued

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Carcinogenic effect

Only a few therapeutic agents are carcinogenic; several drugs used to treat cancer are among those with the greatest carcinogenic potential

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Teratogenic effect

Drug-induced birth defect

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Organ specific toxicity

Drugs toxic to specific organs (ie. amphotericin B - kidneys)

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Boxed Warnings

Black box warnings; strongest safety warning a drug can carry and still remain on the market. Concise summary of the adverse effects of concern, text is presented inside a box with a heavy black border