Flashcards in AEDs Deck (47):
Which AEDs are indicated for focal seizures?
Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), Eslicarbazepine (Aptiom), Lacosamide (Vimpat), Perampanel (Fycompa)
Aptiom is primarily used as adjunct and Vimpat is expensive!
Which AEDs are broad spectrum?
Valproate (Depakote), Lamotrigine (Lamictal), Levetiracetam (Keppra), Clobazam (Onfi), and Topiramate (Topomax)
***Onfi and Topomax mainly used as adjunct
Which AEDs are used to treat absence seizures?
1st line: Ethosuximide, 2nd line: Valproate
Which AED can be used for atonic seizures?
adverse effects of Carbamazepine? (3)
hyponatremia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia
adverse effects of Clobazam? (1)
adverse effects of Ethosuximide? (1)
adverse effects of Felbamate? (2)
aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity
adverse effects of Gabapentin (2)?
adverse effects of Lacosamide? (1)
PR interval prolongation
adverse effects of Lamotrigine (1)
adverse effects of Levetiracetam (1)?
adverse effects of Oxcarbazepine? (3)
hyponatremia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia
adverse effects of Perampanel (1)
adverse effects of phenobarbital (2)
adverse effects of phenytoin? (3)
neuropathy, ataxia, gum hyperplasia
adverse effects of pregabalin (1)
adverse effects of Primidone (2)?
adverse effects of Rufinamide (1)?
shortened QT interval
adverse effects of Tigabine? (2)
Steven-Johnson syndrome, agitation
adverse effects of Topiramate? (4)
weight loss, cognitive dysfunction, kidney stones, parasthesias
adverse effects of Valproate? (1)
irreversible visual field defect
adverse effects of Zonisamide? (2)
weight loss, kidney stones
Which AEDs are enzyme inducers? (6)
Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Topiramate
Which AEDs are enzyme inhibitors? (2)
Felbamate and Valproic Acid
What AED when coadministered with Valproate, increases Valproate levels?
Phenytoin; Valproate is 90% protein bound and phenytoin will compete for protein binding
Which AED has autoinduction?
Carbamazepine has autoinduction with increased clearance over 2-4 wks
Which AEDs reduces the efficacy of OCPs? (4)
Oxcarbazepine (at doses > 900mg/d), Eslicarbazepine, Perampanel (at dose of 12mg, not 8mg), Felbamate
Name the Na channel blockers (6)?
Oxcarbazepine, Carbazepine, Eslicarbazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin, Rufinamide
How Lacosamide a different Na channel blocker?
blocks NA channels (enhancing slow inactivation, unlike most Na channel blockers that enhance fast Na channel activation)
Which AEDs act on GABA? (8)
Valproate, phenobarbital, Clonazepam, Clobazam, Tigabine, Vigabatrin
Which AEDs act on Ca channels? (3)
Ethosuximide, Gabapentin, Zonisamide
Mechanism of Valproate?
GABA potentiation, blocks Ca channels, blocks Na channels
Mechanism of action of Perampenel?
non-competitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist
Mechanism of action of Primidone?
converted in the liver to phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide
Mechanism of action of Levetiracetam?
binds to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A
Mechanism of action of Felbamate?
NMDA receptor antagonist; GABA enhancement; NA blocker
Mechanism of action of Topiramate?
antagonism of AMPA/kainate receptors, augment GABA, block vol gated Na channels
Lacosamide has greater efficacy and bioavailability if combined with what type of AEDs?
non-Na channel drugs
Comorbid indications of Carbamazepine?
Mood stabilization, trigeminal neuralgia
Comorbid indications of Clobazam?
Comorbid indications of Gabapentin?
neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia
Comorbid indications of Lamotrigine?
Comorbid indications of Pregabalin?
Neuropathy, fibromyalgia neuropathic pain
Comorbid indications of Primidone?
Comorbid indications of Topiramate?