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Flashcards in AEDs Deck (47):
1

Which AEDs are indicated for focal seizures?

Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), Eslicarbazepine (Aptiom), Lacosamide (Vimpat), Perampanel (Fycompa)

Aptiom is primarily used as adjunct and Vimpat is expensive!

2

Which AEDs are broad spectrum?

Valproate (Depakote), Lamotrigine (Lamictal), Levetiracetam (Keppra), Clobazam (Onfi), and Topiramate (Topomax)
***Onfi and Topomax mainly used as adjunct

3

Which AEDs are used to treat absence seizures?

1st line: Ethosuximide, 2nd line: Valproate

4

Which AED can be used for atonic seizures?

Rufinamide

5

adverse effects of Carbamazepine? (3)

hyponatremia, aplastic anemia, pancytopenia

6

adverse effects of Clobazam? (1)

somnolence

7

adverse effects of Ethosuximide? (1)

aplastic anemia

8

adverse effects of Felbamate? (2)

aplastic anemia, hepatotoxicity

9

adverse effects of Gabapentin (2)?

edema, dizziness

10

adverse effects of Lacosamide? (1)

PR interval prolongation

11

adverse effects of Lamotrigine (1)

Stevens-Johnson syndrome

12

adverse effects of Levetiracetam (1)?

agitation, somnolence

13

adverse effects of Oxcarbazepine? (3)

hyponatremia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia

14

adverse effects of Perampanel (1)

aggressive behavior

15

adverse effects of phenobarbital (2)

hepatotoxicity, somnolence

16

adverse effects of phenytoin? (3)

neuropathy, ataxia, gum hyperplasia

17

adverse effects of pregabalin (1)

edema

18

adverse effects of Primidone (2)?

ataxia, vertigo

19

adverse effects of Rufinamide (1)?

shortened QT interval

20

adverse effects of Tigabine? (2)

Steven-Johnson syndrome, agitation

21

adverse effects of Topiramate? (4)

weight loss, cognitive dysfunction, kidney stones, parasthesias

22

adverse effects of Valproate? (1)

irreversible visual field defect

23

adverse effects of Zonisamide? (2)

weight loss, kidney stones

24

Which AEDs are enzyme inducers? (6)

Carbamazepine, Lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Topiramate

25

Which AEDs are enzyme inhibitors? (2)

Felbamate and Valproic Acid

26

What AED when coadministered with Valproate, increases Valproate levels?

Phenytoin; Valproate is 90% protein bound and phenytoin will compete for protein binding

27

Which AED has autoinduction?

Carbamazepine has autoinduction with increased clearance over 2-4 wks

28

Which AEDs reduces the efficacy of OCPs? (4)

Oxcarbazepine (at doses > 900mg/d), Eslicarbazepine, Perampanel (at dose of 12mg, not 8mg), Felbamate

29

Name the Na channel blockers (6)?

Oxcarbazepine, Carbazepine, Eslicarbazepine, Lamotrigine, Phenytoin, Rufinamide

30

How Lacosamide a different Na channel blocker?

blocks NA channels (enhancing slow inactivation, unlike most Na channel blockers that enhance fast Na channel activation)

31

Which AEDs act on GABA? (8)

Valproate, phenobarbital, Clonazepam, Clobazam, Tigabine, Vigabatrin

32

Which AEDs act on Ca channels? (3)

Ethosuximide, Gabapentin, Zonisamide

33

Mechanism of Valproate?

GABA potentiation, blocks Ca channels, blocks Na channels

34

Mechanism of action of Perampenel?

non-competitive AMPA glutamate receptor antagonist

35

Mechanism of action of Primidone?

converted in the liver to phenobarbital and phenylethylmalonamide

36

Mechanism of action of Levetiracetam?

binds to synaptic vesicle protein SV2A

37

Mechanism of action of Felbamate?

NMDA receptor antagonist; GABA enhancement; NA blocker

38

Mechanism of action of Topiramate?

antagonism of AMPA/kainate receptors, augment GABA, block vol gated Na channels

39

Lacosamide has greater efficacy and bioavailability if combined with what type of AEDs?

non-Na channel drugs

40

Comorbid indications of Carbamazepine?

Mood stabilization, trigeminal neuralgia

41

Comorbid indications of Clobazam?

Anxiety

42

Comorbid indications of Gabapentin?

neuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia

43

Comorbid indications of Lamotrigine?

Mood stabilization

44

Comorbid indications of Pregabalin?

Neuropathy, fibromyalgia neuropathic pain

45

Comorbid indications of Primidone?

essential tremors

46

Comorbid indications of Topiramate?

Migraine

47

Comorbid indications of Valproate?

Migraine, mood stabilization