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Nursing 101 - Exam #2 > Aging I > Flashcards

Flashcards in Aging I Deck (43):
1

Name a few transitions that elderly people may go through.

1. loss of independence
2. loss of spouse and friends
3. retirement

2

Name 3 categories of loss elderly people experience.

1. physical
2. cognitive
3. socioemotional

3

What is the most damaging loss that an older person can experience?

people losses

4

What are two negative affects losing people can have on an older person?

1. isolate the older person
2. diminish number of meaningful relationships and may make the older person scared to develop new relationships

5

In order for an older person to successfully age what are 3 things they must do? and give examples

1. integrate loss into their lives (ie. after a stroke walk with a cane or walker)

2. deal with them effectively (ie. counselling, support groups or talk with family)

3. move on

6

What are some coping strategies that can be used?

helping others
making new friends
adopting a pet
maintaining sense of humor
avoiding isolation and self pity
maintain independence
setting goals

7

Name some factors affecting older adults ability to cope with loss.

age
past experience with loss
previous coping methods
existing support systems
state of health
spiritual beliefs
ability to maintain some control over related factors

8

What is gerontology?

scientific approach to all aspects of aging
most often a multi-disciplinary approach

9

What are 5 categories of gerontology?

health
sociological
economic
behavioural
environmental

10

What is geriatrics?

sub field of gerontology
studies the medical aspects of old age

11

What 5 aspects is geriatrics concerned with?

1. preventative
2. clinical
3. remedial
4. rehabilitative
5. continuous surveillance

12

What is prejudice and stereotypes of the elderly classified as?

ageism

13

What is an attitude people might exhibit if they are using ageism?

derogatory attitude

14

What might characteristics might some people think of when they think of an elderly person?

sick
senile
useless
burden to our economy

15

Where does ageism stem from?

Our societies anxiety re: aging and our cultural emphasis on youth, beauty and vigor

16

What are the 2 categories that ageism presents?

1. covert / subtle
2. active / negative

17

What might some actions be of someone who is presenting with subtle ageism?

1. appears as positive concern for elderly

2. portrays elderly as helpless victims who need help

3. perpetuated by educated people, professionals, elderly advocates

18

What might some actions be of someone who is presenting with negative ageism?

1. denied jobs

2. given inadequate financial support

3. limited social services available

4. mandatory retirement

19

What are some consequences of ageism?

1. missing out on someones experiences and knowledge in life

2. creation of inaccurate & distorted views of aging

20

What is the counter reaction to failure model that defines a person with unique qualities but are not set apart from normal humanity?

Normal person model

21

What is the counter reaction to failure model that views aging as time of growth, increased function rather than failure?

Personal growth model

22

What are some other consequences of ageism?

1. may not be hired for jobs

2. referred to as "cute"

3. shunned socially - perceived as being senile or boring

4. edged out of family life by children

23

What is the maximum number of years an individual can live called?

lifespan

24

What is the number of years that will probably be lived by the average person born in a particular year?

life expectancy

25

What is the life expectancy of men vs. woman in canada?

78.4 years for men
80.8 years for woman

26

Why has there been an increase of "graying in canada"?

1. increased birth rate in late 19th and mid 20th century

2. high immigration rates in 20th century

3. post WW2 baby boom

4. decreased death rate in childhood & early adulthood

27

What has contributed to an increased life expectancy?

1. medical advances (ie. vaccines)

2. treatment of diseases which were formerly fatal

3. longer life expectancy but living with more chronic illnesses than ever before

28

What percentage of elderly live in institutions?

8-10%

29

What percentage of people aged 65-69 live in institutions?

2%

30

What are two categories of aging theories?

1. micorbiological
2. macrobiological

31

What do microbiological theories look at?

look within the body's cells to explain aging

32

Name the two microbiological theories?

1. cellular clock theory
2. free radical theory

33

What does the cellular clock theory believe?

cells can divide a maximum of about 75-80 times and that as we age the cells become increasingly less capable of dividing - telomeres shorten

34

Which theory does the cellular clock theory believe in? and describe it

nonstochastic theory
genetically programmed physiological mechanisms within the body control the process of aging

35

What does the free radical theory believe?

age because inside our cells metabolism produce unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals. These molecules damage DNA and other cellular structures.

36

Which theory does the free radical theory fall back on? and describe it

stochastic theory
random cellular damage over time

37

What do macrobiologcal theories look at?

examine life at a more global level than the cellular level

38

What theory states that aging in the body's hormonal system can lower resilience to stress and increase the likelihood of disease?

Hormonal stress theory

39

What diseases are associated with prolonged increased hormone levels?

cardiovascular disease
cancer
diabetes
hypertension

40

What is described as a normal process of aging no matter how we take care of ourselves?

primary aging

41

What is described age declines that are pathological and result from extrinsic factors such as drinking and smoking?

secondary aging

42

Describe the social breakdown model

1. society views elderly as incompetent
2. society develops labels for elderly
3. society provides inadequate support
4. elderly's skills atrophy
5. elderly labels self as incompetent

43

Describe the social reconstruction model

1. society views elderly as competent
2. society develops positive labels
3. society provides adequate support
4. elderly's skills improve
5. elderly labels self as competent