What are the 3 types of fuel?
Avgas - piston a/c
Jet A1- unleaded Kerosene
Jet B - A naphtha-kerosene for cold weather performance
CNG and LNG have been developed for use in aircraft but this has not been incorporated
True or False?
The two things needed to know for fuel?
How much is being used (flow)
What are the threats to effective in-flight fuel management are?
- Failure to comply with Company policy
- International Deviation from the planned flight profile
What are the 3 primary categories of poor in-flight fuel management?
When must fuel leak checks be made?
- Top of Climb
- Further checks
- Approach descent point
What can a lack of oil do to the aircraft?
Effect engine bearings and may result in engine failure
How can you tell the amount of oil is low?
When you have a high oil temperature
What does falling RPM indicate?
A loss of power
What instrument tells jet aircraft if the efficiency of their engines?
Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT)
May result in fire if too high
What PSI do hydronic systems run at?
Why do hydraulics chose to run at PSI of 3,000?
Because less space required
When was the Ground Proximity Warning System created (GPWS)
Developed in 1970
What does GPWS do?
Helps prevent controlled flight into terrain
What does GPWS use?
Uses aircraft’s radar altimeter to determine height above terrain.
What will GPWS do when close to the ground?
Make an audible sound
Terrain Awareness and Warning Systems (TAWS)/ Enhance GPWS(EGPWS) are mandatory by ICAO. True or False?
How does EGPWS work?
Obtains aircraft position from on board navigation systems such as GPS and compares with the terrain database programmed into memory bank by manufacturer
What do TAWS soft alerts indicate?
An unusual situation but not yet critical
What is a TAWS hard warning?
Indicates a critical situation which requires immediate and robust action
What shall be confirmed when a TAWS is stated?
Check the pressure setting
Based on GPS position and it’s terrain database TAWS can also give the flight crew a colour coded visual display of the terrain and obstacles in the vicinity of aircraft.
In the event of a missed approach being initiated because of TWAS/GPWS alert (plus wind shear alert or TCAS RA) controllers should be aware that?
Aircraft may not conform to the published missed approach procedures
Aircraft have on board weather equipment, specifically designed for detecting bad weather. True or False?
If a pilot tilts the aircraft’s weather radar to the ground what will it help?
To identify ground features.
The aircraft’s weather radar may also provide information to the GPWS equipment
When selecting autopilot what features/ parameters can they set?
Cruise speed (Mach no.) Height Climb and descent rates Turns Full landings
What are the advantages of auto pilot?
1) Reduces workload
2) Ensures accuracy
3) Many factors can be considered
4) Reduces input error
What is the FLight Management System (FMS)?
A database which integrates route planning and airport data with management and autopilot for flight optimisation.
FMS optimises the flight parameters in terms of best fuel burn, speed, time weight for waypoints. Including “Top of Climb/Descent (TOC/D) and ETA. Monitors weather and TCAS. Failure of system would increase pilot workload.
What is the Electronic Flight Instrument Systems EFIS?
A unified electronic display which has combined data from different sources of the A/C
What are the benefits of EFIS?
Simplifies instrument scan
Improves positional awareness
What does the Primary Fought Display PFD combine?
Attitude Director indicator (ADI) and,
Horizontal Situation Indicator (HSI) formats with ASI, Altitude, VSI, TCAS and other essential information.
EFIS has a navigation mode which displays navigational data on a moving map.
Present heading, waypoints etc. Shown in real time.
Usually a full set of vital mechanical flight instruments are provided as back-up in the event of EFIS failure
True or False?