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Flashcards in Airway Anatomy review Deck (29)
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1

Oral Cavity

(bones)

  • mandible
  • maxilla
  • palatine bone

2

Oral Cavity

  • dental arches anteriorly and laterally (where teeth sit)
  • palates 
  • occupied by the tongue
  • communicates posteriorly with the oropharynx
  • 2 arches
    • palatoglossal arch - anterior and attaches to tongue
    • palatopharyngeal arch - posterior; attaches to oral arch

3

Oral Cavity 

(teeth)

  • 32 adult teeth
  • numbered 1-16 right to left on maxilla
    • supplied by CN V2 (superior alveolar nerve branch)
  • numbered 17-32 left to right on mandible
    • supplied by CN V2 (inferior alveolar nerve branch)

4

Hard Palate

  • anterior 2/3
  • palatine processes of the maxillae and horizontal plates of the palatine bones
  • incisive fossa and greater palatine foramen allow for vessels of maxillary artery (external cartoid) and nerves of CN V2)

5

Soft Palate

  • movable posterior 1/3
  • uvula
  • continuous with wall of the pharynx and joined to tongue and pharynx by the platoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches

 

* if the right vagal nerve is damaged, you will see a left sided deviation of your uvula

 

6

Palate

(generals)

  • arched roof of the oral cavity proper and floor of nasal cavities
  • hard palate
  • soft palate
  • palatine tonsils- lymphoid tissue on each side of the oropharynx between the two arches

7

Tongue: Extrinsic Muscles

(Names and innervations)

  • Genioglossus
  • Hyoglossus
  • Styloglossus
  • Palatoglossus (only one innervated by Vagus)

*all muscles innervated by hypoglossal (CN XII) except Palatoglossus

 

**if your right hypoglossal nerve is injured, will cause right side deviation on tongue

8

Cervical Viscera:

Pharynx

(includes what? -generals)

  • cranial base to C6- continuous with esophagus
    • nasopharngyx
    • oropharynx
    • laryngopharynx
    • vallecula

9

Nasopharynx

  • posterior to nose (choanae), superior to soft palate
  • respiratory function
  • pharyngeal tonsils, adenoids when enlarged 

10

Oropharynx

  • posterior to the mouth
  • soft palate -superior
  • base of tongue- inferior
  • palatoglossal and palatopharyngeal arches - laterally
  • ends at the superior border of epiglottis 

 

  • digestive function
  • palatine tonsils

11

Laryngopharynx

  • posterior to the larynx
  • extends from superior border of epiglottis 
  • to inferior border of cricoid cartilage (C4-C6)

12

Larynx

  • fucntions
    • airway protection
    • respiration
    • phonation
  • location
    • C3-C6
      • connects oropharynx with trachea

13

Laryngeal cartilages

3 unpaired and 3 paired

 

  • paired
    • Arytenoid
    • Corniculate
    • Cuneform
  • unpaired
    • thyroid
    • cricoid
    • epiglottic

14

Thyroid Cartilage

  • level of C4
  • largest and most prominent
  • anterior attachement for vocal cords

15

Epiglottic Cartilage

  • covers opening to the larynx during swallowing

16

Cricoid Cartilage

  • only complete cartilaginous ring
  • singet shaped
  • arch faces anteriorly (thickest part in the back)

17

Arytenoid Cartilages

  • posterior attachement for vocal cords

18

Corniculate Cartilages

  • attach to the apices of the arytenoid cartilages
  • posterior portion of the aryepiglottic fold

19

Cuneiform Cartilages

  • do not directly attach to any other cartilages
  • in the aryepiglottic fold, not always present
  • lateral to corniculates

20

True vocal cords

  • control sound production with audible vibrations
  • appear pearly white
  • formed by the vocal ligaments
  • attached anteriorly to the thyroid cartilage and posteriorly to the arytenoid cartilages

21

Glottic Opening 

(rima glottidis)

  • triangular aperture between the cords
  • variation in the:
    • tension and length of the vocal folds
    • width of the rima glottidis
    • intensity of expiratory effort
  • produces changes in voice pitch

22

Intrinsic Laryngeal Muscles

  • control the movements of the lyrngeal cartilages
    • control the length ad tension of the vocal cords and the size of the glottic opening
  • cricothyroid muscle innervated by the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve
  • all others innervated by the recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve

23

Cricothyroid Muscle

  • Crycothryoid = Cords tense
  • stretches and tenses vocal ligament

24

Thyro-arytenoid

  • Thyro-arytenoid =They relax
  • relaxes vocal ligament

25

Posterior crico-arytenoid

  • Posterior crico-arytenoid = Please come apart!
  • abducts vocal cords

26

Lateral crico-arytenoid

  • Lateral crico-arytenoid = Let's close the airway
  • adducts vocal folds

27

Transverse and Oblique arytenoids

  • adducts vocal folds

28

vocalis

  • relaxes vocal ligament

 

(vocalis is relaxing on vacation)

56

carina

where trachea bifurcates.

Left and right sides come off at different angles. 

right bronchi is 2.5 cm long with 25 degree angle

left bronchi is 5cm long with a 45 degree angle