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1

an outline of Alexander's career with dates.

336 - comes to power

336 - 334 - securing his northern frontiers in Thrace and Illyria; suppresing a revolt in Greece:

Thebans revolted. Athenians in sympathy with them.

First, just requested the surrended of Phoenix and Prothytes. But Thebans retaliated with a demand for the surrender of Philotas and Antipater. 

The city was captured and razed to the ground.

334 - crossed to Asia (left Antipater in charge of Europe).

 - battle at Granicus:

victory over Persian satrap, opened western Asia Minor

Sent 300 suits of armour from the spoils as a dedication to Athena at Athens

Doesnt go right into Asia but securing Asia Minor first. Then - Phoenicia and Syria

333 - battle at Issus:

Persian king Darius was in the battle himself but managed to escape. Alex, however, captured his family

opened the route into Syria >> Securing the coast.

332 - foundation of Alexandria - 2st major foundation by Alexander in Asia Minor.

all Syria and Palestine was in his hands and he was in Egypt, where he founded Alexandria; then consulted teh oracle of Amon at Siwah.

>> seizing the whole seas-coast - to protect his base in Greece and Macedonia from any possible naval attack.

He had already decided to disband his navy both from lack of money and also seeing that his fleet was not capable of an action against the Pesrian navy.

331 - battle at Gaugamela:

some call it the decisive battle of the war for Persians were forced to retrieve, and even chased for some time.

330 - destruction of Xerxes' palace at Persepolis

- death / assasination of Darius >> proclamation of Alexander being the lord of Asia

327 - Alex's 1st formally acknowledged mariage to Roxana

the daughter of a Sogdian baron, Oxyartes, to help reconcile his opponents in the areas of Sogdiana [?]

- crossing of Hindu Kush

326 - battle at Hydaspes: defeated Indian king Porus;

  • his last great vicotry; 
  • was asked by a ruler of the territory , prince Taxiles, to help him against Porus

- the mutiny at Hyphasis >> agreed to return back : built a fleet and proceeded downstream Indus River

325 - set off with part of his forces through Gedrosia while the fleet under Nearchus sailed along the coast

- order to disband mercenary army

324 

  • return from East to Messopotamia
  • marriages at Susa; celebration of the fusion of Macedonians and Persians into a master race + celebration of the completion of his conquest of Persian Empire.
  • the mutiny at Opis

opposition to the fusion and incorporation of Asian youth: the opposition collapsed

proskynesis

  • request for all Greek cities to receive back all exiles (excpet for Thebans)

unemployed mercenaties were pro-Alexander and he wanted to get them back to Greece to establish his supporters (he was ahving troubles in Asia Minor at the time). But some cities were unhappy about receiving the exiles back for there would the issues of land and property.

  • demand for Alexander to receiece divine honors

​13 June 323 - died in Babylon

 

2

What could be said about Alexander and Athens?

After battle at Granicus in 336 BC, Alex sent 300 suits of amrour from the spoils to Athens a a dedication to Athena on his and all Greeks' behalf (except for the Spartans).

Reasons:

  • to emphasize PanHellenic character
  • to please Athenians - to avoid the possibility of their revolt

​In addition, destruction of Darius's palace could be seen as a revenge for Athens.

3

 330 BC

  • destruction of Xerxes' palace at Persepolis
  • death / assasination of Darius >> proclamation of Alexander being the lord of Asia

 

3

325 BC

- set off with part of his forces through Gedrosia while the fleet under Nearchus sailed along the coast

order to disband mercenary army

4

Alex's dubious relationship with Greek citites

- acknowledges the long tradition of independence

- treated them with a veiled autocracy

4

Death of Darius

330 BC

5

333 BC

battle of Issus (city) - the one depicted on the mosaic. Darius was in the battle but escaped. However, Alex captured his family.

opened the route to Syria

6

Arrian

  • Greek speakin Roman;
  • act. in 2 c. AD
  • main source for Alexander for us: used two contemporary sources Aristobulus and Ptolemy

 

7

Name four gate-opening battles of Alexander's conquests.

334 - battle at Granicus:

victory over Persian satrap, 

opened western Asia Minor. 

333 - battle at Issus:

Persian king Darius was in the battle himself but managed to escape. Alex, however, captured his family

Opened the route to Syria

331 - battle at Gaugamela:

some call it the decisive battle of the war for Persians were forced to retrieve, and even chased for some time.

326 - battle at Hydaspes:

defeated Indian king.

8

331 BC

battle of Gaugamela: some call it the decisive battle of the war for Persians were forced to retrieve, and even chased for some time.

8

Who pressured Macedonians when Philip came to power? 

Illirians (Illiria)

Thracians (Thrace)

Triballians (Triballi)

9

334 BC

  • enters Asia via the battle at Granicus (river) in 334 BC.
    • Antipater is left in charge of Europe.
    • Sent devotion offerings to Athena in Athens

10

Which one of Alexander's battle is often called "decisive" ? Why?

Battle of Gaugamea, 331 BC :  

  • Persian were forced to retreive and were chazed for a while
  • Opened the gate into the heart of Persian Empire : Babylon, Susa, Persepolis

11

Official historian of Alexander

Callisthenes, a nephew of Alexander

11

Why there the exiles threat to both Greece and Macedonia? 

What issues would Greece face if exiles were to be received back?

  1. They could have been employed by hostile forces;  
  2. Their return would create property problems

12

destuction of Xerxes's palace

330 BC

12

 the mutiny at Hyphasis 

326 BC

13

What was so special about Macedonia?

Macedonia was a bit apart from the Central Greece. And their governament was monarchical

14

338

battle at Chaeronea: Philip II of Macedon vs Thebes and Athens

15

Examples of the unease attached to some of Alex's friendships

Parmeneon

  • was left to be in charge of communications of Persian Empire when Alex left;
  • his son, Philos, was found guilty in plotting  against Alexander
  • both - executed

Harpallos

  • placed in charge of Babylonian treasured; fled;
  • found; escaped; murdered at Crete

Black Kleitos

  • ​killed by Alexander during drinking

Callisthenes

  • argued about proskynesis

16

Callisthenes

- official historian of Alexander;

- nephew of Aristotel;

 

16

336/ 336 -334 BC

  • Alex comes to power
  • secures his northern frontiers with Illiria and Thrace.

Thebans revolted. Athenians in sympathy with them.

First, just requested the surrender of Phoenix and Prothytes. But Thebans retaliated with a demand for the surrender of Philotas and Antipater. 

The city was captured and razed to the ground.

16

battle at Hydaspes

326 BC

17

324 BC

  • return from East to Messopotamia
  • marriages at Susa; celebration of the fusion of Macedonians and Persians into a master race; 
  • the mutiny at Opis

opposition to the fusion and incorporation of Asian youth: the opposition collapsed

proskynesis

  • request for all Greek cities to receive back all exiles (excpet for Thebans)

unemployed mercenaties were pro-Alexander and he wanted to get them back to Greece to establish his supporters (he was ahving troubles in Asia Minor at the time). But some cities were unhappy about receiving the exiles back for there would the issues of land and property.

  • demand for Alexander to receiece divine honors

19

When was the battle of Chaeronea?

338 BC

20

332 BC

foundation of Alexandria

1st major foundation by Alexander in Asia Minor.

21

What was Alex's last great victory?

battle at Hydaspes in 326 BC : against Indian king Porus

23

battle of Issus

333 BC

25

When was the sack of Thebes and why?

336/5 BC, in the very beginning of Alexander's career. Thebes revolted and denied initial Alexander's request to surrender Phoenix and Prothytes. For that the city was captured and razed to the ground.

27

Alex enters Asia 

  • enters Asia via the battle at Granicus (river) in 334 BC.
    • Antipater is left in charge of Europe.
    • Sent devotion offerings to Athena in Athens