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1

Match the definition with the correct pathology.
Epilepsy,Dementia,Parkinson’s disease, Grand mal seizures,Alzheimers disease, Huntington’s Disease

-Condition of the brain in which temporary disturbances occur, causing a range of signs
-Normal aging results in enlargement of the ventricular system and sulci, causing forgetfulness
-Shaking palsy with stooped posture, stiffness, and slow movement with a fixed facial expression
-Generalised convulsions associated with a patient falling, hypersalivation, and incontinence
-Progressive cerebral atrophy developing at an earlier age than the senile period
-Involuntary movements and early dementia

-Condition of the brain in which temporary disturbances occur, causing a range of signs =Epilepsy,
-Normal aging results in enlargement of the ventricular system and sulci, causing forgetfulness = Dementia,
-Shaking palsy with stooped posture, stiffness, and slow movement with a fixed facial expression = Parkinson’s disease,
Generalised convulsions associated with a patient falling, hypersalivation, and incontinence
=Grand mal seizures,
-Progressive cerebral atrophy developing at an earlier age than the senile period =Alzheimers disease,
-Involuntary movements and early dementia =Huntington’s Disease

2

Which of the following is the most common cause of a brain abscess?
Select one:
a. Streptococci
b. Sinus infection
c. Herpes simplex
d. Haemophilus influenzae

Streptococci

3

Match the definition with the pathology
Zygomatic arch, Skull fracture, Diastatic, Tripod, Le Fort fracture, Blowout fracture, Depressed, Fracture, Nasal bones, Mandible

-The submentovertex projection best demonstrates ______ _______ fractures.
-A sharp lucent line
-A________ fracture is a linear fracture that intersects a skull suture and courses along it
-Fractures of the zygomatic arch, orbital floor, and a separation of the zygomaticofrontal suture.
-Bilateral and horizontal fracture of the maxillae
-Direct blow to the front of the orbit caused by a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure.
-A stellate fracture has multiple fracture lines radiating outward from a central point, is usually found in the skull, and is known as a ______ fracture.
-The face consists of thin, poorly supported bones that easily _______ in response to a traumatic force.
-The most common facial fracture is a fracture of the _______ _____
-The angle of the ________ is the most common fracture site of the jaw.

The correct answer is:
The submentovertex projection best demonstrates ______ _______ fractures. – Zygomatic arch,
A sharp lucent line – Skull fracture, A________ fracture is a linear fracture that intersects a skull suture and courses along it – Diastatic,
Fractures of the zygomatic arch, orbital floor, and a separation of the zygomaticofrontal suture. – Tripod, Bilateral and horizontal fracture of the maxillae – Le Fort fracture,
Direct blow to the front of the orbit caused by a rapid increase in intraorbital pressure. – Blowout fracture,
A stellate fracture has multiple fracture lines radiating outward from a central point, is usually found in the skull, and is known as a ______ fracture. – Depressed,
The face consists of thin, poorly supported bones that easily _______ in response to a traumatic force. – Fracture,
The most common facial fracture is a fracture of the _______ _____ – Nasal bones,
The angle of the ________ is the most common fracture site of the jaw. – Mandible

4

A(n) ________ grows slowly, arising from the Schwann cells on the eighth cranial nerve.

Select one:
a. Acoustic neuroma
b. Chromophobe adenoma
c. Meningioma
d. Pituitary adenoma

a. Acoustic neuroma

5

An inadequate production of dopamine may be a contributing cause in cases of _______ disease?

Select one:
a. Huntington’s
b. Parkinson’s
c. Alzheimer’s
d. Epilepsy

b. Parkinson’s

6

An air-fluid level seen in the sphenoid sinus is indicative of a _______ skull fracture?

Select one:
a. Tripod
b. Blowout
c. Basilar
d. Nasal bone

c. Basilar

7

Brain metastases usually originate in the ______?

Select one:
a. Colon and lung
b. Testicles and kidneys
c. Lung and breast
d. Breast and cervix

c. Lung and breast

8

Haemorrhagic strokes are most commonly caused by?

Select one:
a. A berry aneurysm
b. Hypertension
c. Carotid artery disease
d. A and B
e. A and C

d. A and B

9

Movement of the brain within the skull following blunt force trauma to the skull sometimes results in a cerebral__________?

Select one:
a. Contusion
b. Acute hematoma
c. Epidural hematoma
d. Subdural hematoma

a. Contusion

10

Match the definition with the correct pathology
Metastatic carcinoma, Meningioma, Viii Acoustic neuroma,Pituitary adenoma

Abnormal cells reaching the brain by hematogenous spread

Tumour arising from arachnoid lining cells and attached to the dura mater

Focal or generalised enlargement of the cranial nerve

Causes gigantism in adolescents and acromegaly in adults

Abnormal cells reaching the brain by hematogenous spread – Metastatic carcinoma,
Tumour arising from arachnoid lining cells and attached to the dura mater – Meningioma,
Focal or generalised enlargement of the cranial nerve – Viii Acoustic neuroma,
Causes gigantism in adolescents and acromegaly in adults – Pituitary adenoma

11

Sinus radiographs should be taken using a ________ beam and with the patient in the ________ position?

Select one:
a. Vertical; recumbent
b. Vertical; erect
c. Vertical; prone
d. Horizontal; erect

d. Horizontal; erect

12

The most common form of inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid is______?

Select one:
a. Brain abscess
b. Viral meningitis
c. Bacterial meningitis
d. Encephalitis

c. Bacterial meningitis

13

A hematoma occurring after a blunt head injury causing venous bleeding is a(n)_____?

Select one:
a. Cerebral contusion
b. Subdural hematoma
c. Epidural hematoma
d. Subarachnoid bleed

b. Subdural hematoma

14

Cerebral contusion, Intraparenchymal haemorrhage, Stroke, Cerebrovascular disease, Hydrocephalus, Transient ischemic attacks, Abscess, Epidural

Occurs when the brain comes in contact with the rough skull surfaces.

Hypertensive vascular disease causes ________

Sudden and dramatic development of a focal neurological deficit

Processes causing _____ _____ include abnormal vessel walls, occlusions, blood vessel ruptures, and decreased blood flow.

Dilation of the ventricular system

An embolic stroke or stenosis causing a temporary blockage of a cerebral vessel is a(n) ________.

Loculated infection most often in the grey matter

In _________ empyema, the infectious process is localised outside the dural membrane. This form of empyema is also associated with osteomyelitis.

The correct answer is: Occurs when the brain comes in contact with the rough skull surfaces. – Cerebral contusion,
Hypertensive vascular disease causes ________ – Intraparenchymal haemorrhage,
Sudden and dramatic development of a focal neurological deficit – Stroke,
Processes causing _____ _____ include abnormal vessel walls, occlusions, blood vessel ruptures, and decreased blood flow. – Cerebrovascular disease, Dilation of the ventricular system – Hydrocephalus,
An embolic stroke or stenosis causing a temporary blockage of a cerebral vessel is a(n) ________. – Transient ischemic attacks,
Loculated infection most often in the grey matter – Abscess
, In _________ empyema, the infectious process is localised outside the dural membrane. This form of empyema is also associated with osteomyelitis. – Epidural

15

A meningioma is a benign tumour arising from______?

Select one:
a. Arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura
b. Embryonic remnants
c. Anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
d. Glial cells spreading by direct extension

a. Arachnoid lining cells and is attached to the dura

16

Match the definitions with the correct pathology
Viral meningitis, Meningitis, Osteomyelitis of the skull, Encephalitis, Bacterial meningitis

Mumps, polio and potentially herpes simplex cause________?

Acute inflammation of the meninges is__________?

Appears radiographically as multiple small poorly defined areas of lucency

Mild headaches and fever to more severe cerebral dysfunction, seizures, and a coma may result from the viral infection of the brain called_____?

Commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae in neonates and young adults

The correct answer is:
Mumps, polio and potentially herpes simplex cause________? – Viral meningitis,

Acute inflammation of the meninges is__________? – Meningitis,

Appears radiographically as multiple small poorly defined areas of lucency – Osteomyelitis of the skull,

Mild headaches and fever to more severe cerebral dysfunction, seizures, and a coma may result from the viral infection of the brain called_____? – Encephalitis,

Commonly caused by Haemophilus influenzae in neonates and young adults – Bacterial meningitis

17

Which of the following is not a membrane covering the brain?

Select one:
a. Epidural
b. Dura mater
c. Arachnoid
d. Pia pater

a. Epidural

18

Le Fort fractures result in a(n)______?

Select one:
a. Bilateral injury at the angle
b. Inferior orbital rim fracture
c. Detached fragment that is unstable
d. Zygoma detachment

c. Detached fragment that is unstable

19

Which is the most common result from a FOOSH in 11-16 years olds?

Select one:
a. Torus fracture of the distal radial metaphysis
b. Salter Harris of the physeal plate
c. Colles fracture
d. Scaphoid fracture

b. Salter Harris of the physeal plate

20

A malignant tumour of the kidney common in children under five years is?

Select one:
a. Teratoma
b. Ewing’s sarcoma
c. Adenocarcinoma
d. Wilms’ tumour

d. Wilms’ tumour

21

Which of the following would be an indicator for a skull series

Select one:
a. Congenital heart disease
b. Mastoiditis
c. Hyaline membrane disease
d. Osteomyelitis

b. Mastoiditis

22

Which is the most common result from a FOOSH in 4-10 years olds?

Select one:
a. Salter Harris of the physeal plate
b. Scaphoid fracture
c. Colles fracture
d. Torus fracture of the distal radial metaphysis

d. Torus fracture of the distal radial metaphysis

23

Insufficient mineralisation of the immature skeleton results in bowed appearance of the lower limbs.

Select one:
a. Rickets
b. Osteomalacia
c. Achondroplasia
d. Osteoporosis

a. Rickets

24

Respiratory distress syndrome/hyaline membrane disease is caused by?

Select one:
a. Sticky mucus
b. Inadequate inspiration
c. Viral infection
d. Inadequate amount of surfactant

b. Inadequate inspiration

25

Match the definition/description with the correct abdominal pathology
Pyloric stenosis, Celiac disease, Necrotising enterocolitis NEC, – Hydronephrosis,Atresias, Atresias,
Hirschsprung’s disease

Congenital defect in male urethra

May result in repeated, forceful vomiting

Condition resulting from an allergic reaction to gluten

Inflammation of the inner lining of the intestine

Enlarged renal collection system due to obstruction

Condition characterised by absence of an opening in an organ

Characterised by absence of rhythmic contractions of the large intestine

: Congenital defect in male urethra – Hypospadias,
May result in repeated, forceful vomiting – Pyloric stenosis,
Condition resulting from an allergic reaction to gluten – Celiac disease,
Inflammation of the inner lining of the intestine – Necrotising enterocolitis NEC,
Enlarged renal collection system due to obstruction
– Hydronephrosis,
Condition characterised by absence of an opening in an organ – Atresias,
Characterised by absence of rhythmic contractions of the large intestine – Hirschsprung’s disease

26

Pelvis/hip, Lower limb, Skull,Lower Limb,Chest, Skull, Abdomen
DDH
Kohler’s disease
Shunt check
Talipes
Atelectasis
Hydrocephalus
Respiratory distress syndrome
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
Intussusception
Cystic fibrosis
Haemoptysis
Premature closure of fontanelles
Necrotising enterocolitis
Meconium ileus
Bronchiectasis

DDH– Pelvis/hip,
Kohler’s disease – Lower limb,
Shunt check – Skull,
Talipes – Lower Limb,
Atelectasis – Chest,
Hydrocephalus – Skull,
Respiratory distress syndrome – Chest,
Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease – Lower limb, Intussusception – Abdomen,
Cystic fibrosis – Chest,
Haemoptysis – Chest,
Premature closure of fontanelles – Skull,
Necrotising enterocolitis – Abdomen,
Meconium ileus – Abdomen,
Bronchiectasis – Chest

27

Match the definition/description with the correct chest pathology
Neonate Graves disease, Meconium aspiration, Epiglottitis, Haemoptysis, Cystic fibrosis, Croup, Hyaline membrane disease

A form of hyperthyroidism
May develop during stressful births
Bacterial infection can lead to closure of the upper airway
Coughing up blood
Inherited disease leading to clogging of the bronchi
Viral infection leading to laboured breathing and dry cough
Also known as respiratory distress syndrome

The correct answer is:
A form of hyperthyroidism – Neonate Graves disease, May develop during stressful births – Meconium aspiration,
Bacterial infection can lead to closure of the upper airway – Epiglottitis,
Coughing up blood – Haemoptysis,
Inherited disease leading to clogging of the bronchi – Cystic fibrosis,
Viral infection leading to laboured breathing and dry cough – Croup,
Also known as respiratory distress syndrome – Hyaline membrane disease

28

Malignant bone tumours are rare in young children

Select one:
True
False

True

29

Match the definition/description with the correct skeletal pathology
Osteochondroses, Talipes equinus, Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, Osteogenesis imperfecta, Myelocele, Most common form of short-limbed dwarfism,Achondroplasia,
Meningocele, Kohler’s bone disease

Group of diseases affecting the epiphyseal plates of long bones

Congenital deformity of the foot involving plantar flexion

A common lesion at the hip

Hereditary disorder characterised by soft and fragile bones

Congenital defect in which the spinal cord protrudes through an opening in the vertebral column

Most common form of short-limbed dwarfism

Congenital defect in which the meninges of the spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column

Inflammation of the navicular bone in the foot

The correct answer is: Group of diseases affecting the epiphyseal plates of long bones – Osteochondroses,

Congenital deformity of the foot involving plantar flexion – Talipes equinus,
A common lesion at the hip – Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease
, Hereditary disorder characterised by soft and fragile bones – Osteogenesis imperfecta,
Congenital defect in which the spinal cord protrudes through an opening in the vertebral column – Myelocele, Most common form of short-limbed dwarfism – Achondroplasia,
Congenital defect in which the meninges of the spinal cord protrude through an opening in the vertebral column – Meningocele,
Inflammation of the navicular bone in the foot – Kohler’s bone disease

30

Which fracture is more common in paediatrics than adults?

Select one:
a. Smiths fracture
b. Radial head fracture
c. Scaphoid fracture
d. Supercondylar fracture

d. Supercondylar fracture