Allergies Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology 2 > Allergies > Flashcards

Flashcards in Allergies Deck (53):
1

what are the symptoms of type 1 hypersensitivity

redness, bronchoconstriction, dyspnea, itching, hypotension, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid, asphyxiation and death

2

what is the triple histamine response

redness, flare, wheal

3

what is the target for intervention

histamine recpeptors, mast cells/basophils and have high affinity for IgE receptors

4

what is IgE implication

allergic type 1 hypersensitivity

5

what is histamine implication

non-allergic via muscarininc receptros and GI disordes via parietal cell

6

histamine antagonist and mast cell stabilizers

targets h1, h2, h3, IgE, mast cells and basophils

7

mechanism of h1 receptors antagnists

block histamien by reversibly competing with histamine for h1

8

what are the divisions of h1

first generation (CNS) and second generation (no CNS)

9

first generation drugs

1. diphenhydramine/benadryl
2. hydroxyzine/atarax, visteril
3. chlorphenirmaine/chloro-trimeton
4. promethazine/phenergan
5. doxylamine/nyquil
6. meclizine/antivert
7. dimenhyrdramine

10

what are the first generation drugs that treat motion sickness

1. meclinzine/antivert
2. dimenhydramine/drammine

11

mechanism of first generation drugs

prevents histamine binding of smooth muscle in veins, bronchi, and intestines and IgE mediators to release from mast cells and basophils

12

what are first generation drugs used in

type 1 hypersensitivity reactions such as rhinitis, urticaria, conjunctivitis, anaphalses and prophylaxis for motion sickness and vestibular disease (Meniere's disease)

13

second generation drugs

1. cetirizine/zyrtec
2. levocetrizine/xyzal
3. desloratadine/clarinex
4. loratidine/claratin
5. fexofenadine/allegra

14

cetirizine/zyrtec dose

i. 5-10 mg daily to age 6
ii. Ped: 2-5 age 2.5-5mg
iii. Sedative

15

levocetrizine/xyzal dose

i. 5 mg
ii. Ped: 2.5 mg

16

desloratadine/clarinex dose

i. 5 mg
ii. Ped: 6-11 age 2.5 mg, 1-5 age 1.25 mg, 6-11 months 1 mg

17

loratidine/claratin dose

i. 10 mg to 6
ii. Ped: 2-5 age 5mg

18

fexofenadine/allegra dose

i. 60 mg or 180 daily
ii. Ped: 30 mg

19

nasal spray

azelastine/astelin, astepro

20

azelastine/astelin, astepro dose

i. 137 mcg/spray - 2X every 12 hours
ii. Ped: 11 half 1X every 12 hours

21

ophthalmic antihistamines

1. azelastine/optivar
2. emedastine/emadine

22

ophthalmic dose

0.05% 1 X every 12 hours

23

ophthalmic decongestive combo

1. antazoline and naphazoline/vasocon-a
2. pheniramine and naphazoline/naphcon-a

24

mechanism of second generation drugs

same as first generation but not used for anaphylaxis

25

side effects: anticholinergic

first generation = dry, blurred

26

side effects: CNS

first generation = sedation, impaired motor

27

what are the drug interaction

ETOH/CNS depressant with first generation

28

purpose of anti-inflammatory

- improve threshold and delay

29

mast cell stabilizer drugs that require 1-2 weeks for benefit

1. ketotifen/zaditor
2. olopatadine/patanol

30

ketotifen/zaditor dose

0.025% 1 drop every 8-12 hours

31

olopatadine/patanol dose

0.05% 1-2 drops every 6-8 hours

32

opthalmic mast cell stabilizers

1. comolyn sodium/crolom
2. lodoxamide/alomide
3. neocromil/alocril
4. pemirolast/alamast

33

comolyn sodium/crolom dose

4% 1-2 drops 4-6 X daily

34

lodoxamide/alomide dose

0.1% 1-2 drops 4X daily for 3 months

35

neocromil/alocril dose

2% 1-2 drops every 12 hours

36

pemirolast/alamast

1-2 drops every 6 hours

37

nasal cromolyn sodium dose

5.2 mg/spray 1 every 4-6 hours

38

nasal corticosteroids relief symptoms

rhinitis, sneezing, pruritus, nasal congestion

39

nasal corticosteroids SE

sneezing, stinging, headache, epistaxis

40

when are nasal corticosteroids beneficial

after 4 weeks

41

nasal corticosteroids drugs

1. beclomethasaone/beconsase
2. budesonide/rhinocort
3. fluticasone propinontae/flonase
4. fluticasone furate/vermayst
5. flunisoldie/nasarel
6. monetasone/nasonex
7. triamcinolne/nasacort

42

beclomethasaone/beconsase dose

42 mcg/spray
1-2 2Xdaily

43

budesonide/rhinocort dose

32 mcg/spray
1 X daily

44

fluticasone propinontae/flonase dose

50 mcg/spray
2 X daily

45

fluticasone furate/vermayst dose

27.5 mcg/spray
2 X daily

46

flunisoldie/nasarel dose

29 mcg/spray
2 X twice daily

47

monetasone/nasonex dose

50 mcg/spray
2 X daily

48

triamcinolne/nasacort dose

55 mcg/spray
2 sprays X daily

49

ophthalmic corticosteroid

loteprednol/alrex

50

loteprednol/alrex dose

0.2%
1 drop X 4 daily

51

leukotriene antagonist

montelukast/singular

52

montelukast/singular dose

10 mg once daily
Ped: 5 mg 6-14 and 5-6 months 4 mg daily

53

how long does it take for montelukast/singulair to become beneifical

1-2 weeks