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Flashcards in Alterations of Pulmonary Function Deck (69):
1

Abnormal Breathing patters are adjustments made by the body to minimize the work of Resp. muscles...List some of these.

1) Kussmaul
2) Obstructed
3) Restricted
4) Gasping
5) Chyene-Stokes
6) Sighing

2

What type of respirations are brought about by strenuous exercise or metabolic acidosis (DKA) characterized by a slightly increased ventilatory rate, very large tidal volume, and no expiratory pause?

Kussmaul Respirations (Hyperpnea)

3

These respirations are characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing w/apnea lasting 15 to 60 sec. & followed by ventilations that increase in volume until a peak is reached, after which ventilation (TV) decreases again to apnea?

Cheyne-Stokes Respirations

4

This ventilation pattern is due to decreased alveolar ventilation caused by airway obstruction, chest wall restriction, or altered neurologic control. It causes Respiratory Acidosis & increased PaCO2.

Hypoventilation

5

This ventilation pattern is increased alveolar ventilation produced by anxiety, head injury, or severe hypoxemia. It causes decreased PaCO2 & leads to Respiratory Alkalosis.

Hyperventilation

6

This is a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by desaturation of hemoglobin, polycythemia, or peripheral vasoconstriction. Insensitive measure of disease possibly indicative of Pulmonary disease
Cardiac disease, Cold & Anxiety.

Cyanosis

7

This anatomical finding is associated with diseases that interfere w/oxygenation of the tissues & it involves the fingertips.

Clubbing

8

This is a protective reflex that expels secretions and irritants from the lower airways.

Coughing

9

This is expectoration of bloody mucus that can be caused by bronchitis, TB, abscess, neoplasms, and other conditions that cause hemorrhage from damaged vessels.

Hemoptysis

10

What types of Anatomical Respiratory issues can produce Chest pain?

-Inflamed Pleurae, Trachea, Bronchi, or Respiratory muscles.

11

This is a term for increased PaCO2 caused by a decrease in minute volume (Respiratory rate x Tidal volume).

Hypercapnia

12

Hypoxemia is a reduced PaO2 possibly caused by what 5 things?

1) Decreased FIO2
2) Hypoventilation
3) Diffusion abnormality
4) V/Q mismatch
5) Shunting

13

This is caused by inadequate gas exchange or ventilation (PaO2 /=50mmHg & pH >/= 7.25)

Acute Respiratory Failure

14

What issues would cause a High & Low V/Q?

-High = impaired perfusion w/normal ventilation (i.e., Pulmonary Embolism)
-Low = normal perfusion w/impaired or blocked ventilation (i.e., shunt)

15

This is a passage of fluid and solid particles into the lung, usu from impaired swallowing and coughing. It frequently results in pneumonitis and pulmonary infection.

Aspiration

16

This is the collapse of alveoli resulting from compression of the lung tissue or absorption of gas from obstructed alveoli?

Atelectasis

17

This is abnormal dilation of the bronchi secondary to another pulmonary disorder, usu infection or inflammation.

Bronchiectasis

18

This is a disorder due to an excessive amount of connective tissue in the lung. It diminishes lung compliance and may be idiopathic or caused by disease.

Pulmonary Fibrosis

19

Inhalation of ________ gases or prolonged exposure to high concentrations of _______ can damage the bronchial mucosa or alveolocapillary membrane and cause inflammation or Acute Respiratory _______.

-Noxious
-Oxygen
-Failure

20

These pulmonary diorders are caused by inhalation of dust particles in the workplace, including coal dust, can cause pulmonary fibrosis, susceptibility to lower airway infection, and tumor formation.

Pneumonoconiosis

21

This is a type of pneumonoconiosis caused by inhalation of silica.

Silicosis

22

This is an allergic or hypersensitivity Rxn to many allergens including grains, bird droppins or feathers, wood dust (red or maple), coffee beans straw etc.

Allergic alveolitis
-Results in IgG AB production & cellular immune activation w/inflammatory response.
-Granuloma formation is common.

23

This is excess water in the lung caused by disturbances of capillary hydrostatic pressure, capillary oncotic pressure, or capillary permeability.

Pulmonary Edema

24

What's a common cause that increases the hydrostatic pressure in the pulmonary circulation & subsequent pulmonary edema?

Left sided Heart Failure

25

This results from an acute, diffuse injury to the alveolocapillary membrane and decreased surfactant production, which increases membrane permeability and causes edema and atelectasis.

ARDS

26

This is a category of pulmonary disease characterized by airway obstruction that causes difficult expiration.

Obstructive pulmonary disease

27

What are some examples of obstructive pulmonary diseases?

1) Asthma
2) Chronic Bronchitis
3) Emphysema

28

This obstructive disease causes episodic attacks of bronchospasm, bronchial inflammation, mucosal edema, and increased mucus production.

Asthma

29

This is the coexistence of Chronic Bronchitis & emphysema.

COPD

30

This obstructive disorder causes airway obstruction resulting from bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy and production of thick, tenacious mucus.

Chronic Bronchitis

31

This obstructive disorder is where septal destruction and loss of passive elastic recoil leads to airway collapse and obstruct gas flow during expiration.

Emphysema

32

Emphysema in which septal deterioration is caused by __-________ or old age tends to be panacinar.

a1-antitrypsin

33

Emphysema in which septal deterioration results from _______ tends to be centriacinar.

Smoking

34

These are the most common cause of short-term disability in the US, including rhinitis (cold), pharyngitis, & laryngitis.

Upper Respiratory Tract Infections

35

What are two serious lower respiratory tract infections, which occur most often in older adults and individuals w/impaired immunity or underlying disease?

Pneumonia & TB

36

Pneumococcal pneumonia is an acute lung infection resulting in an inflammatory response with what four phases?

1) Consolidation
2) Red hepatization
3) Gray Hepatization
4) Resolution

37

Viral pneumonia is an acute, self-limiting lung infection usu caused by?

Influenzavirus

38

TB is a lung infection caused by what organism?

M. tuberculosis

39

In TB the inflammatory response isolates colonies of ______ by enclosing them in tubercles and surrounding the tubercles with ______ tissue.

-Bacilli
-Scar

40

What are the two possibilities that may occur during Bacilli invasion (TB)?

1) Remain Dormant
2) Recurrence of active disease

41

These are circumscribed areas of destruction of lung parenchyma w/suppuration usu resulting from aspiration pneumonia?

Abscesses

42

Pulmonary vascular diseases are caused by what?

1) Embolism
2) HTN in pulmonary circulation

43

This is an occlusion of a portion of the pulmonary vascular bed by a thrombus, tissue fragment, or air bubble.

Pulmonary Embolism

44

Depending on the size & location of the PE, the embolus can cause what to happen?

1) Hypoxic vasoconstriction
2) Pulmonary Edema
3) Atelectasis
4) Pulmonary HTN
5) Shock
6) Death

45

How is pulmonary HTN defined?

Pressure in pulmonary artery greater than 5-10 mmHg of normal

46

Pulmonary HTN can be caused by what?

1) Elevated Left Ventricular pressure
2) Increased blood flow through the pulmonary circulation
3) obliteration or obstruction of vascular bed
4) Active constriction of vascular bed produced by hypoxemia or acidosis

47

This is right ventricular enlargement caused by chronic pulmonary HTN & can progress to RVF if not reversed?

Cor Pulmonale

48

____ cancer is most common in men and represents about 1% of all cancers. In the most common cell type, ________ cell, metastasis is rare when lesions are Dx & Txt early.

-Lip
-Squamous

49

______ cancer occurs primarily in men and represents 2-3% of all cancers. Squamous cell carcinoma of the ______ vocal cords is most common and manifests with a clinical symptom of progressive __________.

-Laryngeal
-True
-Hoarseness

50

What's the most frequent cause of cancer death in the US & is mostly caused by smoking?

Lung cancer

51

Cancer cell types include what 6 types that differ in likelihood of metastasis and prognosis?

1) Squamous
2) Small cell (Oat) Carcinoma
3) Adenocarcinoma
4) Large cell carcinoma
5) Bronchial adenoma
6) Mesothelioma

52

________ Carcinoid and _________ tumors are rare tumors of the bronchial airways.

-Bronchial
-Adenocystic

53

What is the most frequent site of aspiration?

Right Lower Lobe

54

This type of atelectasis is caused by external pressure exerted on the lung tissue, such as occurs with tumors, or by fluid or air in the pleural space.

Compression

55

Compression atelectasis at the base of the lungs can be caused by_________ distention pressing on a portion of the lung causing collapse.

Abdominal

56

This type of atelectasis results from gradual absorption of air from obstructed or hypoventilated alveoli or from inhalation of concentrated oxygen or anesthetic agents.

Absorption

57

Bronchial dilation may be _________ bronchiectasis, with symmetrically dilated airways as seen after pneumonia & is reversible; ______ bronchiectasis, in which the bronchi become large and ballon-like; or ______ bronchiectasis, in which constrictions and dilations deform the bronchi.

-Cylindrical
-Saccular
-Varicose

58

This is a Late-stage fibrotic disease of the airways
Can occur with all causes of bronchiolitis.

Bronchiolitis obliterans

59

What type of pneumothorax occurs unexpectedly in healthy individuals (usu men age 20-40) that's caused by rupture of blebs in visceral pleura?

Spontaneous (primary) Pneumothorax

60

What type of pneumothorax is caused by chest trauma such as a rib fracture, stab wound, or gun shot?

Secondary Pneumothorax

61

Spontaneous & Secondary Pneumothorax can present in one of two ways, what are they?

1) Open (communicating)
-Air pressure in space equals barometric pressure b/c air in goes out
2) Tension
-One-way valve where pressure begins to exceed barometric pressure...Air can't get out upon expiration

62

What's the most common symptom associated w/pleural effusion?

Dyspnea

63

This is an infected pleural effusion via presence of pus in the pleural space.

Empyema

64

This is a pleural effusion of watery fluid that diffuses out of capillaries beneath the pleurae due to cardiovascular diseases that causes high blood pressure, kidney or liver disease that disrupts plasma protein production...

Transudative (Hydrothorax)

65

This type of effusion contains fluid rich in protein that migrates out of capillaries due to infection, inflammation, or malignancy of pleurae that stimulates MC's to release biochem. mediators that increase capillary permeability.

Exudative

66

This pleural effusion is fluid of chyle (lymph & fat) that's dumped by lymphatic vessels into the pleural space instead of passing form the GI tract to the Thoracic duct via traumatic injury, infection, or disorder that disrupts lymphatic transport.

Chylothorax (chyle)

67

This term describes instability of a portion of the chest wall due to fracture of several consecutive ribs in more than one place or the fracture of the sternum plus several consecutive ribs, causing paradoxical movement of the chest with breathing.

Flail Chest

68

What are two anatomical abnormalities that can decrease chest wall compliance?

Obesity & Kyphoscoliosis

69

This is a prolonged exposure to high concentrations of supplemental O2 that can result in this relatively rare iatrogenic condition that provokes an inflammatory response by oxygen radicals.

Oxygen toxicity