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Flashcards in altered cell ch 2 Deck (65)
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1
Q
atrophy
A
decrease in cellular size; eventually can lead to organ atrophy
2
Q
hypertrophy
A
increase in cellular size; eventually can cause increase in organ size
3
Q
hyperplasia
A
increased number of cells d/t increased rate of cellular division. ex: cancer
4
Q
dysplasia
A
abnormal changes in size, shape, and organization of mature cells. "top layer" ex: pap smear
5
Q
metaplasia
A
reversible replacement of one mature cell by another. ex:chronic smoker stops smoking, tissues regenerate
6
Q
cellular responses to injury
A
-Decrease in ATP, causing failure of sodium-potassium pump and sodium-calcium exchange
-Failure of the Na+ K+ pump to remove intracellular Na+ results in cellular swelling
7
Q
Eukaryote
A
Higher animals and plants, fungi, protozoa, algae.
well defined nucleus
has organelles
has a membrane
8
Q
Prokaryote
A
Cyanobacteria, bacteria.
no membrane, nucleus, or organelles.
lack histones
9
Q
Nucleus
A
cell division and control of genetic information
largest membrane bound organelle
10
Q
Nucleolus
A
composed largely of RNA, most of the cellular DNA, the DNA binding proteins, and the histones that regulate its activity
synthesizes ribosomes
11
Q
Ribosomes
A
provide sites for cellular protein synthesis
12
Q
Endoplasmic reticulum
A
Responsible for protein synthesis, protein folding, transport, and sensing cellular distress.
13
Q
Smooth ER
A
does not contain ribosomes or particles, but does contain enzymes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones and are responsible
14
Q
golgi apparatus
A
refining plant and directs traffic
folds called cisternae-where secretory vesicles collect
15
Q
lysosomes
A
saclike organelles filled with enzymes that digest macromolecules and defunct intracellular organelles and particles engulfed from outside the cell by endocytosis
16
Q
mitochondira
A
responsible for cellular respiration and energy production
double membrane
17
Q
the inner matrix of the mitochondria
A
contains the enzymes of the respiratory chain, or the electron-transport chain. These enzymes are essential to the process of oxidative phosphorylation that generates most of the cell’s ATP.
18
Q
cytosol
A
Intermediary metabolism (intracellular chemical reactions and transformation of small organic molecules), involving enzymatic biochemical reactions, ribosomal protein synthesis, and storage of carbs, fat, and secretory vesicles
19
Q
cytoskeleton
A
shape and internal organization
mvmt of substances in the cell
mvmt of external projections
20
Q
microtubules
A
unbranched
support and move organelles from one part of the cytoplasm to another
facilitate transport of impulses along nerve cells
have roles in the inflammatory and immune responses and hormone secretion
21
Q
microfilaments
A
found in bundles
major driver for many cell functions including cell movement, endocytosis, and maintenance of cell and tissue shape
22
Q
intermediate filaments
A
braided, ropelike fibers
called the nuclear lamina beneath the inner nuclear membrane and serves as a protective chamber for the cell’s DNA
23
Q
oxidative phosphorylation
A
Occurs in the mitochondria and is the mechanism by which the energy produced from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is transferred to ATP
24
Q
incised wound
A
wound that is longer than is deep; has more external bleeding than internal.
25
Q
stab wound
A
penetrating sharp-force injury that is deeper than it is long; has more internal bleeding than external
26
Q
puncture wound
A
instruments or objects with sharp points but without sharp edges to produce puncture wounds (ex: nail).
27
Q
hypothermia
A
caused by chilling or freezing of cells; highest risk in elderly and neonates.
Slows cellular metabolic processes, and there is ROS (free radicals) production
28
Q
heat exhaustion
A
occurs when sufficient salt and water loss result in hypovolemia. Hypotension occurs secondary to fluid loss and the individual feels weak, nauseated, and can suddenly collapse
29
Q
heat stroke
A
life-threatening
high environmental temperatures and humidity; core body temp rises as a result of thermoregulatory failures (106 degrees is considered life-threatening)
peripheral vasodilation and decreased circulating blood volume are significant
30
Q
malignant hyperthermia
A
occurs in response to inhalational anesthetics or succinylcholine
Associated with increase in body temp, increased muscle metabolism, muscle rigidity, rhabdomyolysis, acidosis, and cardiovascular alterations
31
Q
neuroleptic malignant syndrome
A
caused by the administration of neuroleptic drugs or the withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs
characterized by lead-pipe muscle rigidity, autonomic dysregulation, hyperthermia, and extrapyramidal SE
32
Q
diffusion
A
the movement of a solute molecule from an area of greater solute concentration to an area of lesser solute concentration
The difference in concentration is known as concentration gradient
33
Q
osmolality
A
measure of the number of dissolved particles in a fluid, in the number of molecules per weight of water
34
Q
aldosterone
A
aid in the reabsorption of sodium and water, excretion of potassium and hydrogen, and to stabilize BP.
35
Q
hypernatremia s/s
A
>147
oliguria, elevated temp, tachycardia, hypotension, weak pulse, lethargy, confusion, weakness, coma, convulsions. Elevated chloride and sodium levels.
36
Q
hyponatremia s/s
A
<135
cerebral edema, muscle twitching, headache, weight gain
37
Q
hyperkalemia s/s
A
>5
-caused by increased intake, shift of potassium from the ICF to the ECF, decreased renal excretion, insulin deficiency, or cell trauma
-tingling, restlessness, cramping, diarrhea, muscle weakness or paralysis, and dysrhythmias with changes in EKG (can cause v-fib or cardiac arrest). Increased neuromuscular excitability
38
Q
hypokalemia s/s
A
<3.5 *(can be from NG suctioning)
Decreased neuromuscular excitability, skeletal muscle weakness, smooth muscle atony, or cardiac arrhythmias (bradycardia, AV block, or paroxysmal atrial tachycardia).
39
Q
hypercalcemia s/s
A
>10.5
Fatigue, weakness, lethargy, anorexia, nausea, constipation, impaired renal function, kidney stones, dysrhythmias, bradycardia, cardiac arrest, bone pain, osteoporosis, or fractures.
40
Q
hypocalcemia s/s
A
<8.5
increased neuromuscular excitability, tingling, muscle spasms, intestinal cramping, hyperactive bowel sounds, osteoporosis, fractures, and severe cases results in tetany, prolonged QT interval, or cardiac arrest.
41
Q
hypophospatemia
A
<2
-can result from intestinal malabsorption related to vit D deficiency, use of magnesium and aluminum containing antacids, long-term alcohol abuse, or respiratory alkalosis
-s/s reduced capacity for O2 transport by RBCs, platelet dysfunction, deranged nerve and muscle formation, possible respiratory failure, cardiomyopathies, and bone resorption.
42
Q
hyperphosphatemia
A
levels above 4.7 mg/dL, can result from acute or chronic renal failure with significant loss of glomerular filtration.
Symptoms primarily related to low serum calcium levels- caused by high phosphate levels.
43
Q
hypermagnesemia
A
>3
-caused by renal insufficiencies or failure, excessive intake of magnesium-containing antacids, or adrenal insufficiency
-s/s lethargy, drowsiness, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, nausea, vomiting, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory distress, heart block, or cardiac arrest.
44
Q
hypomagnesemia
A
below 1.5 mEq/L
-can be caused by malnutrition, malabsorption syndromes, alcoholism, or urinary losses.
-s/s behavioral changes, irritability, increased reflexes, muscle cramps, ataxia, nyastagmus, tetany, convulsions, tachycardia, or hypotension
45
Q
primary systemic changes associated with acute inflammatory response
A
fever, leukocytosis (a transient increase in the levels of circulating leukocytes), and plasma protein synthesis (increased levels of circulating plasma proteins)
46
Q
catacholamines
A
(sympathetic nervous system) prepare the body to act, and cortisol (parasympathetic nervous system) metabolizes energy stores (glucose) and other substances needed to fuel the action.
47
Q
Epi
A
increases cardiac output and increases blood flow to the brain, heart, and skeletal muscles by dilating vessels that supply these organs. It also dilates the airways, which increases delivery of oxygen to the bloodstream
48
Q
norepinephrine
A
constricts blood vessels of the viscera and the skin; it also increases mental alertness
49
Q
cortisol
A
mobilizes glucose, amino acids, lipids, and fatty acids and delivers them to the bloodstream
50
Q
neutrophils
A
fast and numerous in early inflammatory response
Removal of debris in sterile lesions
Phagocytosis of bacteria in nonsterile lesions
51
Q
eosinophils
A
Provide the defense against parasites and regulate vascular mediators.
Help control vascular effects of inflammation.
52
Q
complement cascade
A
-can destroy pathogens directly
-Potent defender, great for bacterial invasion
-Activates or collaborates with every other component of the inflammatory response
53
Q
GAS- alarm stage
A
 Arousal of body defenses—fight or flight
 Stressor triggers the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
 Activates the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
54
Q
GAS- resistance stage
A
 Mobilization that contributes to fight or flight
 Begins with the actions of adrenal hormones.
 Cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine
55
Q
GAS- stage of exhaustion
A
 Occurs only if stress continues and adaptation is not successful
 Progressive breakdown of compensatory mechanisms
 May lead to the onset of disease
56
Q
stimulation of B1 and B2 adrenergic receptors
A
-Heart pumps more blood.
-β2 stimulation increases coronary blood flow.
57
Q
chronotropy
A
affects heart rate
58
Q
inotropy
A
affects contraction
59
Q
EKG indications of MI
A
 ST elevation- STEMI
 ST depression-NSTEMI
 T inversion-NSTEMI
60
Q
mitral valve stenosis
A
 Hinders diastolic flow
 Diastolic murmur (diastolic rumble)
61
Q
mitral valve regurgitation
A
 Occurs during systole
 Systolic murmur
62
Q
PDA manifestations
A
 Continuous, machinery-type murmur
 Bounding pulses, active precordium, thrill upon palpation, and signs and symptoms of pulmonary overcirculation.
63
Q
systolic heart failure
A
decreased ejection fraction
"squeezing" problem
64
Q
diastolic heart failure
A
ejection fraction preserved
"filling" problem
65
Q
autonomic nervous system
A
 Influences the rate of impulse generation (firing), depolarization, and repolarization of the myocardium
 Influences the strength of atrial and ventricular contraction
 Produces changes in the heart and circulatory system faster than metabolic or humoral agents