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Flashcards in Alveolar Bone Deck (168):
0

Formative organ?

Dental follicle / dental sac

1

Formative cell?

Osteoblast

2

Embryonic origin?

Ectomesenchyme

3

Specialized mineralized connective tissue?

Alveolar bone

4

Alveolar bone is composed of? (2)

Intracellular substance
Osteocytes

5

Inorganic content? (Percentage and substance)

67%
Hydroxyapatite

6

Organic content? (Percentage and substance)

28%
Collagen
5%
Osteocalcin
Sialoprotein
Phosphoprotein
Osteonectin
Bone specific proteins (noncollagenous proteins)

7

AB can best resist? (2)

Compressive forces
Forces directed along long axis of tooth

8

AB can least resist? (2)

Tensile forces
Slicing stresses

9

Same amount of force may not cause any injury if it is ___ but may cause fracture if it is ___

Compressive
Tensile

10

Functions of AB?

Support and protection
Attachment of muscles
Reservoir of minerals
Hemopoiesis

11

Structure of AB (first part)? (3)

Alveolar process
Alveolar bone proper
Lamina dura

12

Part of jawbone that contains the teeth and alveoli in which they are suspended?

Alveolar process

13

Alveolar process rests on?

Basal bone

14

Alveolar process' proper development depends on? (2)

Tooth eruption
Maintenance on tooth retention

15

No teeth = ___

No alveolar process

16

Morphology of alveolar process depends on? (3)

Size
Shape
Position of teeth

17

Alveolar process is composed of an ___ and ___ that enclose the spongiosa

Outer
Inner cortical plate of compact bone

18

Compartment of spongy bone?

Spongiosa

19

Spongiosa is aka? (2)

Trabecullae
Cancellous bone

20

Compact bone on the ___
Spongy bone on the ___

Outside
Inside

21

Functions of alveolar process? (2)

Anchors the teeth
Absorbs and distribute occlusal pressure

22

No alveolar process?

Residual bridge

23

Lines the alveolus / alveolar socket contained within the alveolar process?

Alveolar bone proper

24

It is right next to PDL?

Alveolar bone proper

25

Thin plate of cortical bone with numerous perforation?

Cribriform plate

26

Alveolar bone proper allows the passage of ___ between the ___ and ___

Blood vessels
Bone's marrow
PDL

27

The coronal rim of the alveolar bone forma the ___

Alveolar crest

28

The alveolar bone proper begins from ___

Alveolar crest (coronal rim)

29

Crest of alveolar socket is generally parallel to the ___ at a distance of ___

CEJ
1-2mm apical to CEJ

30

Surrounds each tooth as a continuous thin plate of compact bone?

Alveolar bone proper

31

Alveolar bone proper becomes ___ and ___ from ___ of the alveolar process in some area

Fused
Indistinguishable
Cortical plate

32

Corresponds to alveolar bone proper?

Lamina dura

33

Thin white line that parallels the outline of rods of the teeth?

Lamina dura

34

Radiographic term for alveolar bone proper?

Lamina dura

35

Lamina dura is radiopaque because it is ___ and ___

Dense
Mineralized

36

Structural elements? (3)

Osteoblast
Osteocyte
Osteoclast

37

Mononucleated found in PDL on the surface of bone?

Osteoblast

38

Responsible for mineralization?

Osteoblast

39

Osteoblast is considered to differentiate from a precursor cell ___

Pre-osteoblast

40

Osteoblast synthesizes the? (2)

Type I and IV collagen
Cytokine

41

Growth factor that regulate cell metabolism?

Cytokine

42

Derived from mesenchymal stem cells?

Osteoblast

43

Mesenchymal stem cells? (5)

Adult bone marrow (BM-MsCs)
Liver
Fetal tissues
Amniotic fluid
Umbilical cord blood (CB-MSC5)

44

Inactive osteoblast when bone formation stops?

Bone lining cells

45

Bone lining cells become ___ when inactive

Flatter

46

Retain gap junction in osteocytes?

Bone lining cells

47

Mononucleated that found inside bone?

Osteocyte

48

Entrapped osteoblast in the lacunae in the bone?

Osteocyte

49

Osteocyte's number varies depending on the ___

Rapidity of bone formation

50

More osteocytes when bone formation is ___

Rapid

51

After bone formation, osteocyte loses the ability to form ___ and becomes ___

Matrix
Smaller

52

Osteocyte occupies ___ and ___

Osteolytic lacuna
Canaliculi

53

Osteocyte maintains contact with ___ and ___

Adjacent osteocytes
Osteoblasts / lining cells

54

In osteocyte, the processes are ___

Not polarized

55

Functions of osteocyte? (2)

Responsible for osteolysis and osteoplasia
Prevents hypermineralization of bone

56

Due to hormonal regulation? (2)

Osteolysis
Osteoplasia

57

Osteocyte prevents hypermineralization by ___

Pumping Ca back into the bloodstream

58

Limited resorption of bone in lacunae and canal?

Osteolysis

59

Secondary rebuilding of perilacunar bone minerals (depostion)?

Osteoplastin

60

Large multinucleated found in PDL if needed for resorption?

Osteoclast

61

Seen in clusters?

Osteoclast

62

Osteoclast occupies shallowed, hollowed-out depressions called ___

Howships lacunae

63

Organell-poor, brush-like cytoplasmic border which demarcates the zone of resorption?

Ruffled border

64

Ruffled border is where ___ and ___ are released

Acids
Proteolytic enzymes

65

Rich in ___ and ___ transported to ruffled border in vesicles

Acid phosphate
Lysosomal enzymes

66

Attachment of osteoclast to bone (sequence)?

1st

67

Creates sealed environment (sequence)?

2nd

68

Releases acids to demineralize the hard tissue (sequence)?

3rd

69

Organic matrix is degraded by secretion of proteolytic enzymes (sequence)?

4th

70

Responsible to destruction of organic form / mineral component?

Acid

71

Histologic arrangement of mature bone? (2)

Compact bone
Circumferential lamellae
Concentric lamellae
Interstitial lamellae
Spongy bone

72

Dense outer sheet of bone with closely packed layers?

Compact bone

73

Encloses the entire bone forming its outer and inner perimeter?

Circumferential lamellae

74

Surrounds the bone, flat layers of bone?

Circumferential lamellae

75

Makes up the bulk of compact bone?

Concentric lamellae

76

___ is from the basic metabolic unit of bone which is ___

Concentric lamella
Osteon

77

Cylindrical layer of bone that gets bigger?

Osteon

78

Circular with the same center?

Concentric lamellae

79

Center of osteon that houses blood vessels?

Haversian canal

80

Canal connecting one osteon to another?

Volkman's canal

81

Pink staining osteons with smaller haversian canal?

HS 1
Mature osteon

82

Osteons with wider haversian canal?

HS 2
Younger osteons

83

Between the concentric lamellae and fills the spaces between them?

Interstitial lamellae

84

Interstitial lamellae are fragments of pre-existing concentric lamellae from osteons created during ___

Remodeling

85

Soft CT membrane surrounding compact bone?

Periosteum

86

Inner layer of periosteum is next to bone surface, with ___ and ___

Bone cells
Precursors

87

Outer layer of periosteum is more ___ and gives rise to ___

Fibrous
Sharpey's fiber

88

Covers the interstitial surface of compact and spongy bone?

Endosteum

89

Not well demarcated (flimsy covering)?

Endosteum

90

Endosteum is ___ CT with ___

Loose
Osteogenic cells

91

Endosteum physically separates the ___ from the ___ within

Bone surface
Bone marrow

92

Structure of AB (second part)? (3)

Cortical plate
Alveolar bone proper / lamina cribriformis / lamina dura
Spongiosa

93

Outside wall of the maxilla and mandible?

Cortical plate

94

Continuous with alveolar bone proper at alveolar crest?

Cortical plate

95

Cortical plate is ___ and ___ in areas in mandible than in maxilla

More pronounced
Thicker

96

Cortical plate is generally ___ on the lingual / palatal than labial / buccal in both max and mand

Greater

97

Made up of compact bone?

Cortical plate
Alveolar bone proper

98

Alveolar bone proper is aka lamina cribriformis because it is ___

Perforated

99

Alveolar bone proper contains ___ and ___

Osteon
Interstitial lamellae

100

Continuous at alveolar crest?

Alveolar bone proper

101

With bundle bone?

Alveolar bone proper

102

Consists of several layers of bone parallel to the surface of bone penetrated by Sharpey's fibers?

Bundle bone

103

Found in areas of recent bone opposition?

Bundle bone

104

With lines of rest?

Bundle bone

105

Where you find Sharpey's fibers?

Bundle bone

106

Made up of spongy bone?

Spongiosa

107

Spongiosa is ___ in max than in mand

More

108

Trajectories in spongiosa represents ___ / ___

Planes
Lines of stress

109

Spongiosa is spongy bone between? (2)

2 bony plates
Alveolar bone proper of adjacent teeth / roots

110

There is production of RBC?

Hematopoietic marrow

111

Hematopoietic marrow is can be found in? (2)

Maxillary tuberosity
Angle of mandible

112

Mechanisms of bone formation / ossification? (3)

Endochondral / intracartilaginous bone formation
Intramembranous ossification
Sutural bone growth

113

There is formation of cartilage then later on it will be changed into bone?

Endochondral / intracartilaginous bone formation

114

Endochondral / intracartilaginous bone formation occurs by ___ rather than ___

Substitution
Transformation

115

Resorption of cartilage then bone deposition?

Endochondral / intracartilaginous bone formation

116

Occurs only in condyle?

Endochondral / intracartilaginous bone formation

117

Bone develops directly from fibrous tissue?

Intramembranous ossification

118

Mesenchymal cells differentiates into osteoblasts?

Intramembranous ossification

119

Intramembranous ossification is found in? (3)

Maxilla
Body of mandible
Cranial vault

120

Accommodates growth of organs such as brain and eyes?

Sutural bone growth

121

Intramembranous bone deposition?

Development of maxilla

122

Center of ossification?

Development of maxilla

123

Where the anterosuperior dental nerve branches from the inferior orbital nerve?

Development of maxilla

124

Meckel's cartilage is cartilage of?

1st branchial arch / mandibular arch

125

Supports the developing mandible but does not contribute to it?

Meckel's cartilage

126

Meckel's cartilage is 2 bilateral cartilages from ___ to ___ but does not meet

Optic capsule
Midline

127

Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve? (4)

Lingual nerve
Inferior alveolar nerve
Incisive branch
Mental branch

128

Mental branch passes through?

Mental foramen

129

At ___, intramembranous ossification begins at mental branch forming the 1st bone of mandible

7th week

130

From ___, the mandible grows ___ and ___

Mental foramen
Posterior
Anterior

131

During development of mandible, ___ directed growth leads to formation of compartments for the developing ___

Cranially
Tooth gums

132

By ___, the rudimentary mandible is formed by intramembranous ossification

10th week

133

Growth of max and mand are influenced by? (2)

Secondary cartilages
Development of muscle attachment

134

12th week cartilage?

Condylar cartilage

135

4 months cartilage?

Coronoid cartilage

136

Obliterated within 1st year after birth?

Symphysial cartilage

137

Occupies most of the developing ramus?

Condylar cartilage

138

Transient growth cartilage?

Coronoid cartilage

139

CT between 2 ends of Meckel's cartilage?

Symphysial cartilage

140

Fate of Meckel's cartilage? (4)

Incus of inner ear
Malleus of inner ear
Sphenomalleolar ligament
Sphenomandibular ligament

141

Different lines in bone? (4)

Cementing line
Reversal line
Aplastic line
Resting line

142

Incremental lines?

Cementing line

143

New bone layer and resorption?

Reversal line

144

Basophilic substance on surface of inactive bone?

Aplastic line

145

Separates new bone layer from inactive bone layer?

Resting line

146

Age changes in bone, increased function?

Thicker trabeculae
Smaller marrow spaces

147

Age changes in bone, decreased function?

Thinner trabeculae
Wider marrow spaces

148

Tooth movement, pressure side?

Resorption

149

Tooth movement, tension side?

Deposition

150

___ / ___ stimulates bone formation

Tension / pulling

151

If there is resorption, the surface is ___

Scalloped

152

If there is deposition, the surface have ___

Cementing lines

153

Bone remodeling depends on ___ and ___ demands of bone

Functional
Nutritional

154

Bone remodeling...
Lamellae >
Compact bone >
Bundle bone >
Bundle bone >

Haversian system
Spongy bone
Haversian bone
Lamellar bone

155

After tooth extraction, embryonic bone forms within the socket?

Residual ridge

156

Clinical consideration? (4)

Lamina dura
Fenestration
Dehiscence
Disturbance in condylar growth

157

Important in diagnostic landmark?

Lamina dura

158

Hole in bone?

Fenestration

159

The bone may actually resorbs locally, creating a window in the bone through which root can be seen?

Fenestration

160

The rim of the bone between fenestration and the alveolar crest may disappear together?

Dehiscence

161

Overgrowth of jaw bones?

Acromegaly

162

Acromegaly is due to?

Hyper function of pituitary gland

163

Disturbance in condylar growth? (2)

Acromegaly
Clefts of lips and alveolus

164

Are never accompanied by clefts involving the secondary palate?

Clefts of lips and alveolus

165

Clefts of lips and alveolus may result to?

Microstomia

166

Clefts of lips and alveolus are always?

Unilateral

167

Clefts of lips and alveolus can result from? (2)

Defective development of secondary palate
Failure of fusion of maxillary process and medial process