Flashcards in Amanda Deck (14):
Activated by ATP
Non-selective cation-permeable channel
Mediates excitatory postsynaptic response
Third major family of ionotropic receptors
Structure of P2X
2 transmembrane domains - the second TMD lines the pore and is responsible for channel gating
N- and C-teminals intracellular
Extracellular domain binds ATP
Exists as a trimer
Cannot form a functional homomeric receptor
Cannot form a functional heteromeric receptor
Expression of P2X2/P2X3
Commonly found co-expressed in sensory neurones - do they co-assemble into functional P2X2/3 heteromers?
1 P2X2, 2 P2X3
Non-desensitising currents (like P2X2) and are sensitive to alpha,beta-meATP (like P2X3)
Non-desensitising currents in the presence of ATP
Insensitive to alpha,beta-meATP
Can be activated by alpha,beta-meATP
Desensitise very quickly upon activation
What is the evidence that P2X2 and P2X3 form a functional heteromer as a result of their overlapping expression in sensory neurones?
The endogenous receptors have a pharmacological and biophysical phenotype that differs from that of the homomeric receptors of P2X2 or P2X3
Why are novel heteromers difficult to identify?
Lack of subunit-specific drugs
Presence of homomeric receptors
Lack of clearly distinct phenotype - indistinguishable from the current produced by a homomer
Why are mutant receptor subunits now used to identify heteromeric P2X channels?
Due to the lack of subunit-specific pharmacological tools for P2X receptors
What are the advantages of using mutated subunits?
Can knock out the function of one population of homomeric channels
Using P2X2/3 as a model, it is likely that a heteromer containing 2 mutated subunits is also non-functional
Disadvantages of heterologous expression systems
Tend to result in over-expression of the protein of interest - could force a heteromeric interaction/subunit composition not seen in native environments
The systems may lack key regulatory/interacting proteins that may affect the function of the protein of interest e.g. HEK cells have few other ion channels (so P2X can be studied in relative isolation)
Expression of the protein of interest may change the properties of the heterologous cell