Anaphylaxis Flashcards Preview

CP2 - Paediatric Emergency Care > Anaphylaxis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anaphylaxis Deck (6)
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1
Q

Explain the pathophysiology of anaphylaxis?

A

The body reacts to a non harmful allergen usually via IgE.

This causes activation of mast cells and basophils ignites a cascade that results in the release and production of severe inflammatory and vasoactive substances.

2
Q

What are the common features associated with anaphylaxis?

A

Facial swelling (angioedema) causing upper airway obstruction
Hives
Drop in BP
Itchiness

3
Q

What are the common allergens in children that cause anaphylaxis and what are the risk factors for developing anaphylaxis?

A
Allergens:
Peanuts
Nuts
Eggs
Shellfish
Medications (abx, NSAIDs, opioids, anaesthetics)

Risk factors:

  • Asthma/hayfever aka atopy
  • FH of anaphylaxis and allergy
4
Q

What is the management in anaphylaxis?

A

ABCDE

Call for help!

Adrenaline (epinephrine) 1:1000 given IM

  • 500 micrograms if over 12
  • 300 micrograms 6-12
  • 150 micrograms under 6

IM/slow IV hydrocortisone and chlorphenamine.

Fluid resuscitation is also important.

Steroids can be used to prevent a second late stage reaction.

5
Q

What should the patient be sent home with?

A

Epipen for on the go IM adrenaline.
Antihistamines for milder reactions.

Information regarding allergen avoidance.

6
Q

What investigations should be done in someone that has had anaphylaxis?

A

Cutaneous antigen testing can be used after recovery to try to identify the inciting antigen.