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Flashcards in Anatomical Location and Position Deck (32):
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Three reference systems

Direction, Planes, Cavities, and Structural unit

1

Standard Anatomical position of the body is erect

Head facing forward, arms by the sides with palms to the front. Left and right are from the subject's point of view, not the examiner's

2

Directional and positional terms

Describe the location of organs or body parts in relationship to one another.

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Superior

Above, in upward direction, toward the head

4

Inferior

Below or in a downward direction; move toward the feet or tail

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Anterior- ventral

In front of or before, the front side of the body

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Posterior- dorsal

Toward the back, back side of the body

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Caudal

Pertaining to the tail; inferior in position

8

Cephalic

Pertaining to the head; superior in position

9

Medial

Nearest the midline or middle

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Lateral

To the side, away from the middle

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Proximal

Nearest the point of attachment or near the beginning of a structure

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Distal

Away from the point of attachment or far from the beginning of a structure

13

Planes

Describe the imaginary planes that passes through the body and dividing it into various sections.

14

Midsagittal planes- median plane

Vertically divides the body as it passes through the midline to form right half and left half

15

Transverse- horizontal plane

Any plane that divides the body into superior and inferior portions

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Coronal- frontal plane

Any plane that divides the body at right angles to the midsagittal plane. They divides the body into anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) portions

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Cavity

Is a hollow space containing body organs

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Body cavity two groups

Ventral cavity or anterior cavity
Dorsal cavity or posterior cavity

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Ventral cavity- anterior cavity

Is the hollow portion of the human torso extending from the neck to the pelvis containing the heart, and the other organs of respiration, digestion, reproduction and elimination.

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Ventral cavity subdivision areas

Thoracic, Abdominal and Pelvic

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Thoracic cavity

The area of the chest containing the heart and the lungs.

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Pericardial cavity within the Thoracic cavity

Is the space containing the heart.

23

Pleural cavity within the thoracic cavity

Is the space surrounding each lungs

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Other organs in the thoracic cavity

Esophagus, trachea, thymus, certain large blood and lymph vessel

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Abdominal cavity

The space below the diaphragm, commonly referred to as the belly; contains the stomach, intestines, and other organs of digestion.

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Pelvis cavity

The space formed by the bone of the pelvic area, contains the organs of reproduction and elimination.

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Dorsal cavity- posterior cavity

Containing the structures of the nervous system.

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Dorsal cavity subdivision

Cranial cavity- the space in the skull containing the brain.
Spinal cavity- the space within the bony spinal column that contains the spinal cord and spinal fluid.

29

Abdominopelvic cavity

Is the combination of the abdominal and pelvic cavities. It is divided in nine regions.

30

Nine regions of the abdominopelvic cavity

Right hypochondriac-upper right region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage
Left hypochondriac-upper left region at the level of the ninth rib cartilage
Epigastric-region over the stomach
Right lumbar-right middle lateral region
Left lumbar-left middle lateral region
Umbilical-in the center, between the right and left lumbar region; the navel
Right iliac (inguinal)-right lower lateral region
Left iliac (inguinal)-left lower lateral region
Hypogastric-lower middle region below the navel

31

Abdomen four quadrants

Right Upper Quadrant (RUQ)-contain the right lobe of the liver, gallbladder, part of the pancreas and part of the small and large intestines
Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ)-contain the left lobe of the liver, stomach, spleen, part of the pancreas, and part of the small and large intestines
Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ)-contain part of the small and large intestines, appendix, right ovary, right Fallopian tube, right ureter
Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ)-contain part of the small and large intestines, left ovary, left Fallopian tube, left ureter.