Flashcards in Anatomy 2. Stomach Deck (44):
What is the volume that the stomach can hold?
What are the parts of the stomach?
Cardia, fundus, body, antrum, and pylorus.
What are the two curvatures of the stomach?
Greater and lesser curvatures.
Where is the oesophagogastric junction?
To the left of the T11 vertebra on the horizontal plane that passes through the tip of the xiphoid process.
What is the Z-line?
When the mucosa abruptly changes from oesophageal to gastric.
What forms the physiological sphincter of the stomach?
The diaphragmatic musculature that forms the oesophageal hiatus.
How is reflux of stomach contents prevented?
The physiological sphincter formed of the diaphragmatic musculature, and the cardiac notch.
What can chronic reflux lead to?
Metaplastic changes in the mucosa, Barrett's oesophagus.
What is the pyloric sphincter?
At the pyloric end of the stomach, the circular muscle coat is thickened.
What does the pyloric sphincter do?
Controls the discharge of the stomach contents through the pyloric orifice into the duodenum.
What are the stomach rugae?
Longitudinal folds of gastric mucosa.
When does a gastric canal form?
Temporarily when the stomach is empty, between the gastric folds along the lesser curvature.
What is the purpose of the gastric canal?
Allows saliva and other fluids to pass along the pylorus.
What are the three histologically distinct zones of gastric mucosa?
Cardia, fundus and body, and pyloric.
What is the histology of the cardia of the stomach?
Neck cells secreting mucus.
What is the histology of the fundus and body of the stomach?
Neck cells secreting mucus, parietal cells secreting acid, chief cells secreting pepsinogen.
What is the histology of the pyloris of the stomach?
Neck cells secreting mucus, and G-cells secreting gastrin.
What do peptic ulcers most commonly occur?
In the antrum and along the lesser curvature of the stomach.
What does perforation of peptic ulcers lead to?
Spillage of gastric contents into the peritoneal cavity, may affect abdominal structures like the pancreas and associated blood vessels close to the stomach.
What is the greater omentum?
A prominent, four-layered peritoneal fold that hangs down like an apron from the greater curvature of the stomach.
How does the greater ometnum fold back/
It attaches to the anterior surface of the transverse colon and its mesentery.
What is the lesser omentum?
A smaller, double-layered peritoneal fold that connect the lesser curvature of the stomach and the proximal part of the duodenum to the liver.
What is the epiploic foramen?
An opening posterior to the free edge of the lesser omentum that allows the greater and lesser sacs to communicate.
How can the epiploic foramen/ omental foramen be located?
By running a finger along the gall bladder to free the edge of the lesser omentum.
Where does the coeliac trunk arise from?
The abdominal aorta.
What does the coeliac trunk give rise to?
Left gastric, splenic, and common hepatic arteries.
What is the blood supply of the lesser curvature of the stomach?
The left gastric artery from the coeliac trunk and the right gastric from the common hepatic artery from the coeliac trunk.
What is the blood supply of the greater curvature of the stomach?
The left gastro-omental artery from the splenic then coeliac trunk. Also the right gastro-omental artery from the gastroduodenal then common hepatic then coeliac trunk.
What is the blood supply of the fundus and body of the stomach?
The posterior gastric/ small gastric artery, from the splenic then coeliac trunk.
What course does the left gastric vein follow?
The course of the left gastric artery.
What does the left gastric vein drain into?
The hepatic portal vein.
What course does the right gastric vein follow?
The course of the right gastric artery.
What does the right gastric vein drain into?
The hepatic portal vein.
What course does the short gastric vein follow?
The course of the short gastric artery.
What does the short gastric vein drain into?
The splenic vein, joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein.
What course does the left gastro-omental follow?
The course of the left gastro-omental artery.
What does the left gastro-omental vein drain into?
Into the splenic vein, which joins the superior mesenteric vein to form the hepatic portal vein.
What course does the right gastro-omental follow?
The course of the right gastro-omental artery.
What does the right gastro-omental vein drain into?
Into the superior mesenteric vein, which joins the splenic vein to form the hepatic portal vein.
What can cause acute gastritis?
NSAIDS or alcohol.
What is the basic pathology of acute gastritis?
Exfoliation of the surface epithelial cells and decreases secretion of protective mucus.
What can cause chronic gastritis?
Infection with the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori.
What is the basic pathology of chronic gastritis?
Inflammatory changes in the mucosa that results in atrophy and epithelial metaplasia.