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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (205):
1

What is a compound?

- a word formed from two or more whole words

2

What is a root?

foundation of a word that is not a word that can stand on its own

3

What is a combining form?

a word root with an added vowel that can be joined with other words, roots, or suffixes to form a new word.

4

What is a prefix?

word part added to the beginning of a root or word to modify or quality its meaning. what kind of, where, in what direction, or how many

5

What is a suffix?

word part added to the end of a root or word to complete it meaning

6

What is a quadriplegia?

paralysis of all four limbs

7

What is an acronym?

- abbreviation made up of intials pronounced as a word

8

What is a CPAP?

for continuous positive airway pressure

9

What is anatomy?

the study of body structure ex. organs and organ system

10

What is physiology?

the study of body function ex. location and position and actions

11

what is a part of the head?

cranium, face, mandible and neck

12

What are the upper extremities?

consists of shoulder, thorax, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand. torso is thorax abdomen and pelvis

13

What is the lower extremity?

is pelvis, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot

14

What is the anatomic position?

standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hand forward

15

What is a plane?

a flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object. safitall or median planes- slicing bod down middle to create two side-by side halves. frontal or coronal plane- clicing body into two halves. transverse or horizontal plane- slcinging body into tw halves front and back

16

What is the midline?

an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves

17

What is medial?

toward the midline of the body

18

What is lateral/recovery?

to the side, away from the midline of the bdoy

19

What is bilateral?

on both sides

20

What is unilateral?

limited to one side

21

What is a mid-axillary line?

a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle

22

What is anterior?

front of the body or body part

23

What is ventral?

- referring to the front of the body. synonym for anterior

24

What is dorsal?

referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. synonym for posterior

25

What superior?

toward the head (chest superior to abdomen)

26

What is inferior?

away from head, usually compared with another structure closer to the head (ex. lips inferior to nose)

27

What is proximal?

close to torso

28

what is distal/

far away form torso. distal pulse when splitting to make sure circulation isn’t cut off and its foundin extremity.

29

What is torso?

trunk of body, or body without head and extremities

30

What is palmar?

referring to the palm of the hand

31

What is plantar?

referring to the sole of the foot

32

What is mi-clavicular?

the line through the center of each clavicle place stethosocop to listen for breastsounds at mid-clavicular lines to listen to each side of chest

33

What is abdominal quadrants?

four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location or pain or injury.

34

What is supine?

lying on the back

35

what is prone?

lying facedown

36

What is recovery poisiiont?

lying on the side so lateral recumbent position- preferred for unsconscious nontraumama patients where fluid drain from mouth less likely to be aspirated

37

what is fowler position?

sititng position

38

What is thyroid cartilage?

the wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the adma’s apple

39

what is musculoskeletal system?

the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement

40

What is skeleton/

the bones of the body consisting of skull, spine, ribs and sternum, shoulder and upper extremities, and pelvis and lower extremities

41

What is muscle?

tissues that can contract to allow movement of a body part

42

What is ligament?

tissue that connect bone to bone

43

What is tendon?

tissue that connects muscle to bone

44

What is a xiphoid process?

inferior part of sternum or breastbone

45

What is the musculoskeletal system do?

structures of bones, joints, and muscles which functions as a skeleton to support and protect the body, form blood cells, and stores minerals with muscle producing movement.

46

What is skull?

bony structure of head to enclose and protect brain

47

What is cranium?

top, back and sides of skull

48

What is mandible?

lower jaw-bone

49

what is maxillae?

two fused bones forming upper jaw

50

What is nasal bones?

nose bones

51

What is orbits?

bony structures around eyes; eye sockets

52

What is zygomatic arches?

bones that form structure of heels

53

What is vertebra?

33 bones of spinal column providing support for body, and housing and protecting spinal cord.

54

What is cervical?

neck 7 vertebra (more easily injurable control of muscles of breathing diaphragm and muscles between ribs)

55

What is thoracic?

thorax, ribs, upper back with 12 vertebra. lumbar- lower back with 5 vertebra (more easily injurable not supported)

56

What is sacral?

5 vertebra back wall of pelvis. coccyx- tailbone with 4 vertebra

57

What is thorax?

the chest with inside forming thoracic cavity which contains heart lungs and major blood vessels using 12 pairs of ribs to protect 10 attached to sternum and 2 floating no anterior

58

What is sternum?

the breastbone with the manubrium- superior portion of sternum and
xiphoid process- inferior portion of sternum (breastbone)

59

What is lower extremities?

pelvis, acetabulum, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, malleolus, tarsals, metatarsals, calcaneus, and phalanges

60

What is pelvis?

shaped bony structure that supports spine attached to the sacral spine and is point of proximal attachment for lower extremities
• ilium-superior and wides protion of pelvis. wide bony wing near waste
• ischium- lower, posterior portions of pelvis
• pubis-medial anterior portion of pelvis

61

What is acetabulum?

pelvic socket into which ball at proximal end of femur fits to form hip joint

62

what is femur?

large bone of thigh bend at proximal end attach to pelvis with frequent fractures, breaking hip

63

What is patella?

kneecap

64

What is tibia?

medial and larger bone of lower leg

65

What is fibula?

lateral and smaller bone of ower leg

66

What is malleolus?

protrusion on side of ankle. lateral malleoulus at lower end of fibula, seen on outer ankle. medial maelloslus at lower end of tibia seen on inner ankle.

67

What is tarsals?

ankle bones

68

What is metatarsals?

foot bones

69

What is calcaneus?

heel bone

70

What is phalanges?

toe bones and finger bones

71

What are the upper extremities?

clavicle, scapula, acrmion process, acromioclavicular, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, and metacarpals

72

What is the clavicle?

toe bones and finger bones

73

What is the scapula?

highest portion of shoulder

74

What is the acromion process?

joint where acromion and clavicle meet

75

What is acromioclavicular?

bone of upper arm, between shoulder and elbow connected at elbow

76

What is humerus?

bone of upper arm, between shoulder and elbow connected at elbow

77

What is radius?

lateral bone of forearm, connected at elbow, aligned with thumb

78

What is ulna?

medial bone of forearm, connected at elbow

79

What is carpals?

wrist bones

80

What is metacarpals?

hand bones

81

What is a joint?

point where two bones come together

82

What is a ball and socket joint?

. hip oint ball of femur rotates in round socket

83

What is a hinge joint?

ex. elbow angle between humerus and ulna bends and straightens

84

what is the function of muscle?

give it shape and allow for movement

85

What is voluntary muscle?

muscle consciously controlled of brain via nervous system ex. skeletal muscle

86

What is involuntary muscle?

muscle responding automatically to brain signals but not consciously controlled is a smooth muscle ex. gastrointestinal system, lungs, blood vessels, and urinary systems respond automatically from orders form brain

87

What is cardiac muscle?

specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart. sensitive to oxygen supply can tolerate interruption of blood supply for short periods. automaticity- ability of heart to generate and oncduct electrical impulses on its own

88

What is the respiratory/pulmonary system?

nasal cavity, pharync, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs. it functions to obtain oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body (buffer system).

89

What is oropharynx?

area directly posterior to the mouth

90

what is nasopharynx?

areas directly posterior to nose/ cleases warms and humidifies inhaled air

91

What is pharynx?

area directly posterior to mouth and nose. made up of oropharynx and nasopharynx. carries air to trachea and produces sound

92

What is epiglottis?

leaf-shaped structure preventing food and foreign matter form entering trachea

93

What is larynx?

voice box. carries air to trachea and produces sound

94

What is cricoid cartilage?

ring-shaped structure forming lower portion of larynx

95

What is trachea?

windpipe structure that connects pharynx to lungs transporting air to and from lungs made up of C-shaped rings of cartilage

96

What is lungs?

the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place. sites of gas exchange between air and blood

97

What is bronchi?

- tow large sets of branches come off trachea nd enter lungs left and right bronchi. air passageways inside lungs

98

What is alveoli/

mircoscopic sacs of lungs where gas exchange with bloodstream takes place

99

What is diaphragm?

muscular structure dividing chest cavity from abdominal cavity major muscle. controlled by phrenic nerve

100

What is inhalation?

- an active process in which intercostal (rib) muscles and diaphragm contract lowering and ribs move up an dout, expanding size of chest cavity and causing air to flow into lungs creating negative pressure inside chest pulling air into lungs

101

what is exhalation?

passive process where intercostal rib muscles and diaphragm relax causing chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of lungs. ribs move down and in, with diaphragm rising decreasing chest and positive pressure builds up pushing air out

102

What is ventilation?

process of moving gases (oygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and pulmonary circulation of blood

103

what is respiration?

process o moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and cells

104

What is different about children?

o children have smaller nose and mouth, more space used by tongue, crciod cartilage less developed and rigid, aairway structures easily obstructed. chest wall softer and more flexible relying on diaphragm when difficult to breath creating seesaw breathing pattern where chest and abdomen alternate movement.

105

What is adequate breathing?

- sufficient to support life inhaling and exhaling air. inadequate is not

106

What is in the cardiovascular system?

heart, arteries, and veins, and functions to pump blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastes.

107

What are atria?

two upper chambers of heart with right atrium (receiving unoxygenated blood returning from body) an dleft atrium (receiving oxygenated blood returning form lungs).

108

What happens in the right atria?

venae cavae two large veins return blood to heart and receives blood upon contractions send to right ventricle

109

What happens in the left atria?

- receives oxygen rich blood from lungs send to left ventricle

110

What are ventricles?

two lower chambers of heart. right ventricle (send oxygen-poor blood to lungs) and left ventricle (sends oxygenrich blood to body)

111

What happens in the right ventricle?

receives blood form right atrium, when contracts pumps blood to lungs via pulmonary arties low in oxygen and high in CO2

112

what is the left ventricle?

receives oygen rich blood from left atrium. pumps blood into aorta, most muscular pumps to rest of body

113

What is the venue cavae?

superior vena cava and inferior vea cava. two major veins return blood from body to right atria

114

What is a valve?

structure that opens and closes to permit flow of a fluid in only one direction.

115

what is the cardiac conduction system?

syste of specialized muscle tissues conducting electrical impulses stimulating heart to beat automatic and involunatary regulating rate, rhytm, and force with someinput form brain.

116

What is an artery?

any blood vessel carrying blood away from heart

117

What is a coronary artery?

blood vessels supply muscle of heart branch of aorta damage results in chest pain

118

what is aorta?

largest artery in the body transporting blood from left ventricle to systemic circulation. attached to left ventricle, travels superiorly, then arches inferiorly in front of spine thoruh thoracic and abdominal cavities arouhnd navel splits into iliac arteric

119

What is pulmonary arteries?

vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from right ventricle of heart to lungs

120

What is carotid arteries?

large neck arteries, on each side of neck, carry blood from heart to head. palpated during CPR pulse checks

121

What is femoral arteries?

major artery supplying leg

122

What is brachial artery?

artery of upper arm; site of pulse checked during infant CPR in crease over elbow or medial aspect of upper arm used for blood pressure

123

What is radial artery

artery of lower arm; artery felt when taking pulse at thumb side of wrist

124

What is posterior tibial artery?

artery supplying foot, behind medial ankle supply of lower extremeity posterior of medial malleolus

125

What is dorsals pedis artery?

artery supplying foot, lateral to large tendon of big toe

126

What is arteriole?

smallest kind fo artery

127

What is capillary?

thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient waste exchange with body’s cells take place

128

What is venule?

smallest kind of vein

129

What is vein?

any blood vessel returning blood to heart

130

What is pulmonary vein?

vessels carry oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart

131

what is plasma?

fluid portion of blood. watery, salty fluid making up more than half volume of blood with red and whiteblood cells and platelets carried in it.

132

What is red blood cells?

components of the blood carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide awar form cells erythrocytes or red corpuscles with hemoglobin

133

What is white blood cells?

WBC, leukocytes or white corpuscles are components of the blood producing substances (antibodies) that help fight infection and destroy mircoorganisms

134

What is platelets?

platelets are membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells release clotting factors to form blood clots

135

What is pulse?

rhymthic beats caused as waves of blood move thorugh and expand arteries, left ventricle contract by compressing artery over bone allowing to feel the wave of blood.

136

What is peripheral pulse?

radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsais pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral outlying points of body

137

What is central pulse?

carotid and femoral pulses felt in central part of body can always feel.

138

What is blood pressure?

pressure exerted caused be blood exerting force against walls of blood vessels, usually arterial blood pressure measured in diastolic blood pressure and systolic

139

What is systolic blood pressure?

- pressure created in arteries when left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation. reported first

140

What is diastolic blood pressure?

in arteries when left ventricle refilling

141

What is perfusion?

supply of oxygen and ntrueitnts to and removal of wastes from cells and tissues of body as result of flow of blood through capillaries

142

What is hypo perfusion?

inability of body to adequately circulate blood to body’s cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrientsa life-threatening condition called shock. inadequate circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures not reaching and filling all capillary networks of body so not delivered to and not removed from body’s tissues.

143

What is acidosis?

waste products making body more acidic injuring bodys cells and limits blood ability to carry oxygen usually when anaerobic metabolism occurs an dproduces lactic acid.

144

what is blood made up of?

is made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It functions to transport oxygen, protect against pathogens, and promote clotting to control bleeding

145

What is the lymphatic system?

which consists of tonsils/adenoids, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes, and lympatic vessels and helps to maintain the fluid balance of the boy and contribute to the body’s immune system. is a collaboration of organs, tissues (nodes), tin-walled vessels, and fluid found throughout entire body

146

What is a lymphatic vessel?

lymph escpaes form cells and tissues and is returned to bloodstream balanced fluids within body

147

What is a thymus?

necessary for development of immune system

148

What is a tonsil?

protects against pathogens in pharynx

149

What is a spleen?

cleanses blood and removes old red blood cells

150

What is a lymph node?

cleanses lymph fluid of bacteria, and foreign cells making lymopcytes and infection-fighting cells. don't take blood pressure on same side as someone with a mastectomy.

151

What is a nervous system?

consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves functioning to receive sensory information and coordinate the body’s response governing sensation, movement, and thought.

152

What is a CNS?

central nervous system made brain (coordinated body functions) and spinal cord (transmits messages to and from the brain) running and reaching everything is important for consciousness.

153

What is the PNS?

peripheral nervous system with nerves that enter and leave spinal cord and travel between brain and organs without passing through spinal cord.
senory nerves- pick up information form throughout body and transmit to spinal cord and brain
motor nerves- carry messages from brain to body

154

What is autonomic nervous system?

division of peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions. digestion and heart rate with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system

155

What is the sympathetic nervous system?

fight or flight response when body in crisis engaged. Heart to beat faster, lungs to breathe deeper, and blood vessels to constrict

156

What is the parasympathetic nervous system?

times of relaxation feed-or-breed response increased blood flow to digestive tract and reproductive organs slowing heart down
pale and sweaty indicated constricted blood vessels- sumpathetic discarge

157

What is the digestive system?

made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and functions to ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients to the body food travels thorugh body and is digested broken down into absorbable forms.

158

What is a stomach?

muscular hollow sac between esophagus and small intestine where digestion of food begins by expanding as fills with food. gastric acid juices break down food

159

what is a small intestine?

muscular tube between stomach and alrge instestine, divided into duodenu, jejunum, and ileum, receives partially digested food from stomach and continues digestion with nutrients absorbed by body through walls

160

What is a large intestine?

- muscular tube removes water form waste products received from small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by body toward excretion from body

161

What is liver?

largest organ of body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in metabolism of various substances in body. detoxifyinges harmful substances, stores sugar, and assists in production of blood products.

162

What is gallbladder?

sac on underside of liver that stores bile produced by liver

163

what is pancreas?

gland located behind stomach produces insulin and (carbohydrate, protein and fat) juices that assist in digestion of food in duodenum of small intestine

164

What is spleen?

organ located in upper quadrant of abdomen acts as blood filtration system for old blood and reservoir for reserves of blood in case of significant blood loss

165

What is appendix?

small tube located near junction of small and large intestine in right lower quadrant of abdomen, function not well understand. inflammation common cause of abdominal pain made up of lymphatic tissue

166

What is an integumentary system?

skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands functioning to form protective barrier and aids in temperature regulation

167

What is skin?

- later of tissue between body and external environment functions as protection (keep out microorganism, debris and unwanted chemicals), water balance (stops water loss, stops environmental fromentering body), temperature regulation (dilate to carry more blood and constrict to prevent heat loss, perspirate and evaportate and fat layer), excretion (salt and excess water released) , and shock absorption

168

What is epidermis?

outer layer of skin four layers outermost dead cells sloughed off, pigment and living in deeper cells no blood vessels.

169

What is dermis?

- inner (second) layer of kin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath epidermis. sweat glands, sebaceous oild glands, and hair follicels, nerve endings, with this layer open cuasing a lot of problems rpfosue bleeding and intense pain.

170

What is subcutaneous layer?

layers of fat and soft tissues found below dermis. shock absorption and insulation .

171

What is endocrine system?

pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes, and ovaries funcitoining to regulate metabolic/hormonal activities of the body

172

What is insulin?

- a hormone produced by pancres or taken as medication by diabetics

173

What is epinephrine?

hormone produced by body as medication dilates respiratory passages and used to relieve sever allergic reacitons. neurotransmitters engaging sympathetic nervous system affecting heart and bronchial

174

What is the pineal gland?

regulates circadian rhythm in brain by ear

175

What is the pituitary gland?

below pineal regulates many other endocrine glands

176

What is the thyroid and parathyroid glands?

near adams apple regulates metabolic rate and regulates blood calciulm levels

177

what is the thymus gland?

above lungs develops immune system

178

What is the adrenal gland?

- regulates water and electrolyte levels

179

what is the ovaries?

regulates female reproductive organs

180

what is the pancreas?

- regulates blood sugar levels

181

What are the testis?

regulates male reproductive system

182

What is the renal/urinary system?

consisting of the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra which functions to filter waste products out of the blood and remove them from the body regulate fluid levels, filter chemicals, and adjust body pH

183

what are kidneys?

organs of renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in body produce urine. filter urea from blood provide fluid balance by regulating uptake of sodium and produce bicardobante for blood.

184

what is the bladder?

round saclike organ of renal system as a reservoir for urine

185

what are ureters?

tubes connecting kidneys to bladder transporting urine

186

What is the urethra?

- tube connecting balder to vagina or penis for excretion of urine. transport urine to exterior

187

What is the reproductive system?

body system that is responsible for human reproduction

188

What is the male reproductive system?

- including testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and functions to produce sperm for reproduction

189

What are the testes?

male organs of reproduction used for the production of sperm secretes testosterone. housed in scrotum outside body.

190

What is the vas deferents?

transports sperm to urethra

191

What is the epidermis?

stores sperm

192

What is the seminal vesicles?

secretes fluid for semen

193

What is the prostate gland?

secretes fluid for semen

194

What is the bulbourethral gland?

secretes fluid for semen

195

What is the penis?

organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm delivers semen during intercourse

196

What is the female reproductive system?

ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, vagina, vulva, and breasts- produces eggs for reproduction and provides place and nutrients for growing baby

197

What is the ovary?

producing organs within female reproductive system. produces ova and secretes estrogen and progesterone

198

What is the uterus?

female organ of reproduction used to house developing fetus. muscular organ along midline in lower quadrants of female abdomen can seriously bleed.

199

What is the vagina?

female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and an exit from uterus to fetus receives semen during intercourse

200

What is the breast?

produces milk

201

What is the fallopian tube?

transports ovum to uterus where egg fertilized

202

What is the vulva?

protects vagianl orifigc and urinary meatus

203

What is anatomic position?

facing forward, hands at sides, palms facing forward

204

What is palmar?

refers to palm of hand

205

What is plantar?

sole of foot