Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (205):
What is a compound?
- a word formed from two or more whole words
What is a root?
foundation of a word that is not a word that can stand on its own
What is a combining form?
a word root with an added vowel that can be joined with other words, roots, or suffixes to form a new word.
What is a prefix?
word part added to the beginning of a root or word to modify or quality its meaning. what kind of, where, in what direction, or how many
What is a suffix?
word part added to the end of a root or word to complete it meaning
What is a quadriplegia?
paralysis of all four limbs
What is an acronym?
- abbreviation made up of intials pronounced as a word
What is a CPAP?
for continuous positive airway pressure
What is anatomy?
the study of body structure ex. organs and organ system
What is physiology?
the study of body function ex. location and position and actions
what is a part of the head?
cranium, face, mandible and neck
What are the upper extremities?
consists of shoulder, thorax, arm, elbow, forearm, wrist and hand. torso is thorax abdomen and pelvis
What is the lower extremity?
is pelvis, thigh, knee, leg, ankle and foot
What is the anatomic position?
standard reference position for the body in the study of anatomy. In this position, the body is standing erect, facing the observer, with arms down at the sides and the palms of the hand forward
What is a plane?
a flat surface formed when slicing through a solid object. safitall or median planes- slicing bod down middle to create two side-by side halves. frontal or coronal plane- clicing body into two halves. transverse or horizontal plane- slcinging body into tw halves front and back
What is the midline?
an imaginary line drawn down the center of the body, dividing it into right and left halves
What is medial?
toward the midline of the body
What is lateral/recovery?
to the side, away from the midline of the bdoy
What is bilateral?
on both sides
What is unilateral?
limited to one side
What is a mid-axillary line?
a line drawn vertically from the middle of the armpit to the ankle
What is anterior?
front of the body or body part
What is ventral?
- referring to the front of the body. synonym for anterior
What is dorsal?
referring to the back of the body or the back of the hand or foot. synonym for posterior
toward the head (chest superior to abdomen)
What is inferior?
away from head, usually compared with another structure closer to the head (ex. lips inferior to nose)
What is proximal?
close to torso
what is distal/
far away form torso. distal pulse when splitting to make sure circulation isn’t cut off and its foundin extremity.
What is torso?
trunk of body, or body without head and extremities
What is palmar?
referring to the palm of the hand
What is plantar?
referring to the sole of the foot
What is mi-clavicular?
the line through the center of each clavicle place stethosocop to listen for breastsounds at mid-clavicular lines to listen to each side of chest
What is abdominal quadrants?
four divisions of the abdomen used to pinpoint the location or pain or injury.
What is supine?
lying on the back
what is prone?
What is recovery poisiiont?
lying on the side so lateral recumbent position- preferred for unsconscious nontraumama patients where fluid drain from mouth less likely to be aspirated
what is fowler position?
What is thyroid cartilage?
the wing-shaped plate of cartilage that sits anterior to the larynx and forms the adma’s apple
what is musculoskeletal system?
the system of bones and skeletal muscles that support and protect the body and permit movement
What is skeleton/
the bones of the body consisting of skull, spine, ribs and sternum, shoulder and upper extremities, and pelvis and lower extremities
What is muscle?
tissues that can contract to allow movement of a body part
What is ligament?
tissue that connect bone to bone
What is tendon?
tissue that connects muscle to bone
What is a xiphoid process?
inferior part of sternum or breastbone
What is the musculoskeletal system do?
structures of bones, joints, and muscles which functions as a skeleton to support and protect the body, form blood cells, and stores minerals with muscle producing movement.
What is skull?
bony structure of head to enclose and protect brain
What is cranium?
top, back and sides of skull
What is mandible?
what is maxillae?
two fused bones forming upper jaw
What is nasal bones?
What is orbits?
bony structures around eyes; eye sockets
What is zygomatic arches?
bones that form structure of heels
What is vertebra?
33 bones of spinal column providing support for body, and housing and protecting spinal cord.
What is cervical?
neck 7 vertebra (more easily injurable control of muscles of breathing diaphragm and muscles between ribs)
What is thoracic?
thorax, ribs, upper back with 12 vertebra. lumbar- lower back with 5 vertebra (more easily injurable not supported)
What is sacral?
5 vertebra back wall of pelvis. coccyx- tailbone with 4 vertebra
What is thorax?
the chest with inside forming thoracic cavity which contains heart lungs and major blood vessels using 12 pairs of ribs to protect 10 attached to sternum and 2 floating no anterior
What is sternum?
the breastbone with the manubrium- superior portion of sternum and
xiphoid process- inferior portion of sternum (breastbone)
What is lower extremities?
pelvis, acetabulum, femur, patella, tibia, fibula, malleolus, tarsals, metatarsals, calcaneus, and phalanges
What is pelvis?
shaped bony structure that supports spine attached to the sacral spine and is point of proximal attachment for lower extremities
• ilium-superior and wides protion of pelvis. wide bony wing near waste
• ischium- lower, posterior portions of pelvis
• pubis-medial anterior portion of pelvis
What is acetabulum?
pelvic socket into which ball at proximal end of femur fits to form hip joint
what is femur?
large bone of thigh bend at proximal end attach to pelvis with frequent fractures, breaking hip
What is patella?
What is tibia?
medial and larger bone of lower leg
What is fibula?
lateral and smaller bone of ower leg
What is malleolus?
protrusion on side of ankle. lateral malleoulus at lower end of fibula, seen on outer ankle. medial maelloslus at lower end of tibia seen on inner ankle.
What is tarsals?
What is metatarsals?
What is calcaneus?
What is phalanges?
toe bones and finger bones
What are the upper extremities?
clavicle, scapula, acrmion process, acromioclavicular, humerus, radius, ulna, carpals, and metacarpals
What is the clavicle?
toe bones and finger bones
What is the scapula?
highest portion of shoulder
What is the acromion process?
joint where acromion and clavicle meet
What is acromioclavicular?
bone of upper arm, between shoulder and elbow connected at elbow
What is humerus?
bone of upper arm, between shoulder and elbow connected at elbow
What is radius?
lateral bone of forearm, connected at elbow, aligned with thumb
What is ulna?
medial bone of forearm, connected at elbow
What is carpals?
What is metacarpals?
What is a joint?
point where two bones come together
What is a ball and socket joint?
. hip oint ball of femur rotates in round socket
What is a hinge joint?
ex. elbow angle between humerus and ulna bends and straightens
what is the function of muscle?
give it shape and allow for movement
What is voluntary muscle?
muscle consciously controlled of brain via nervous system ex. skeletal muscle
What is involuntary muscle?
muscle responding automatically to brain signals but not consciously controlled is a smooth muscle ex. gastrointestinal system, lungs, blood vessels, and urinary systems respond automatically from orders form brain
What is cardiac muscle?
specialized involuntary muscle found only in the heart. sensitive to oxygen supply can tolerate interruption of blood supply for short periods. automaticity- ability of heart to generate and oncduct electrical impulses on its own
What is the respiratory/pulmonary system?
nasal cavity, pharync, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs. it functions to obtain oxygen and remove carbon dioxide from the body (buffer system).
What is oropharynx?
area directly posterior to the mouth
what is nasopharynx?
areas directly posterior to nose/ cleases warms and humidifies inhaled air
What is pharynx?
area directly posterior to mouth and nose. made up of oropharynx and nasopharynx. carries air to trachea and produces sound
What is epiglottis?
leaf-shaped structure preventing food and foreign matter form entering trachea
What is larynx?
voice box. carries air to trachea and produces sound
What is cricoid cartilage?
ring-shaped structure forming lower portion of larynx
What is trachea?
windpipe structure that connects pharynx to lungs transporting air to and from lungs made up of C-shaped rings of cartilage
What is lungs?
the organs where exchange of atmospheric oxygen and waste carbon dioxide take place. sites of gas exchange between air and blood
What is bronchi?
- tow large sets of branches come off trachea nd enter lungs left and right bronchi. air passageways inside lungs
What is alveoli/
mircoscopic sacs of lungs where gas exchange with bloodstream takes place
What is diaphragm?
muscular structure dividing chest cavity from abdominal cavity major muscle. controlled by phrenic nerve
What is inhalation?
- an active process in which intercostal (rib) muscles and diaphragm contract lowering and ribs move up an dout, expanding size of chest cavity and causing air to flow into lungs creating negative pressure inside chest pulling air into lungs
what is exhalation?
passive process where intercostal rib muscles and diaphragm relax causing chest cavity to decrease in size and air to flow out of lungs. ribs move down and in, with diaphragm rising decreasing chest and positive pressure builds up pushing air out
What is ventilation?
process of moving gases (oygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and pulmonary circulation of blood
what is respiration?
process o moving oxygen and carbon dioxide between circulating blood and cells
What is different about children?
o children have smaller nose and mouth, more space used by tongue, crciod cartilage less developed and rigid, aairway structures easily obstructed. chest wall softer and more flexible relying on diaphragm when difficult to breath creating seesaw breathing pattern where chest and abdomen alternate movement.
What is adequate breathing?
- sufficient to support life inhaling and exhaling air. inadequate is not
What is in the cardiovascular system?
heart, arteries, and veins, and functions to pump blood throughout the entire body to transport nutrients, oxygen, and wastes.
What are atria?
two upper chambers of heart with right atrium (receiving unoxygenated blood returning from body) an dleft atrium (receiving oxygenated blood returning form lungs).
What happens in the right atria?
venae cavae two large veins return blood to heart and receives blood upon contractions send to right ventricle
What happens in the left atria?
- receives oxygen rich blood from lungs send to left ventricle
What are ventricles?
two lower chambers of heart. right ventricle (send oxygen-poor blood to lungs) and left ventricle (sends oxygenrich blood to body)
What happens in the right ventricle?
receives blood form right atrium, when contracts pumps blood to lungs via pulmonary arties low in oxygen and high in CO2
what is the left ventricle?
receives oygen rich blood from left atrium. pumps blood into aorta, most muscular pumps to rest of body
What is the venue cavae?
superior vena cava and inferior vea cava. two major veins return blood from body to right atria
What is a valve?
structure that opens and closes to permit flow of a fluid in only one direction.
what is the cardiac conduction system?
syste of specialized muscle tissues conducting electrical impulses stimulating heart to beat automatic and involunatary regulating rate, rhytm, and force with someinput form brain.
What is an artery?
any blood vessel carrying blood away from heart
What is a coronary artery?
blood vessels supply muscle of heart branch of aorta damage results in chest pain
what is aorta?
largest artery in the body transporting blood from left ventricle to systemic circulation. attached to left ventricle, travels superiorly, then arches inferiorly in front of spine thoruh thoracic and abdominal cavities arouhnd navel splits into iliac arteric
What is pulmonary arteries?
vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from right ventricle of heart to lungs
What is carotid arteries?
large neck arteries, on each side of neck, carry blood from heart to head. palpated during CPR pulse checks
What is femoral arteries?
major artery supplying leg
What is brachial artery?
artery of upper arm; site of pulse checked during infant CPR in crease over elbow or medial aspect of upper arm used for blood pressure
What is radial artery
artery of lower arm; artery felt when taking pulse at thumb side of wrist
What is posterior tibial artery?
artery supplying foot, behind medial ankle supply of lower extremeity posterior of medial malleolus
What is dorsals pedis artery?
artery supplying foot, lateral to large tendon of big toe
What is arteriole?
smallest kind fo artery
What is capillary?
thin-walled, microscopic blood vessel where oxygen/carbon dioxide and nutrient waste exchange with body’s cells take place
What is venule?
smallest kind of vein
What is vein?
any blood vessel returning blood to heart
What is pulmonary vein?
vessels carry oxygenated blood from lungs to left atrium of heart
what is plasma?
fluid portion of blood. watery, salty fluid making up more than half volume of blood with red and whiteblood cells and platelets carried in it.
What is red blood cells?
components of the blood carrying oxygen to and carbon dioxide awar form cells erythrocytes or red corpuscles with hemoglobin
What is white blood cells?
WBC, leukocytes or white corpuscles are components of the blood producing substances (antibodies) that help fight infection and destroy mircoorganisms
What is platelets?
platelets are membrane-enclosed fragments of specialized cells release clotting factors to form blood clots
What is pulse?
rhymthic beats caused as waves of blood move thorugh and expand arteries, left ventricle contract by compressing artery over bone allowing to feel the wave of blood.
What is peripheral pulse?
radial, brachial, posterior tibial, and dorsais pedis pulses, which can be felt at peripheral outlying points of body
What is central pulse?
carotid and femoral pulses felt in central part of body can always feel.
What is blood pressure?
pressure exerted caused be blood exerting force against walls of blood vessels, usually arterial blood pressure measured in diastolic blood pressure and systolic
What is systolic blood pressure?
- pressure created in arteries when left ventricle contracts and forces blood out into circulation. reported first
What is diastolic blood pressure?
in arteries when left ventricle refilling
What is perfusion?
supply of oxygen and ntrueitnts to and removal of wastes from cells and tissues of body as result of flow of blood through capillaries
What is hypo perfusion?
inability of body to adequately circulate blood to body’s cells to supply them with oxygen and nutrientsa life-threatening condition called shock. inadequate circulation of blood through one or more organs or structures not reaching and filling all capillary networks of body so not delivered to and not removed from body’s tissues.
What is acidosis?
waste products making body more acidic injuring bodys cells and limits blood ability to carry oxygen usually when anaerobic metabolism occurs an dproduces lactic acid.
what is blood made up of?
is made up of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It functions to transport oxygen, protect against pathogens, and promote clotting to control bleeding
What is the lymphatic system?
which consists of tonsils/adenoids, thymus gland, spleen, lymph nodes, and lympatic vessels and helps to maintain the fluid balance of the boy and contribute to the body’s immune system. is a collaboration of organs, tissues (nodes), tin-walled vessels, and fluid found throughout entire body
What is a lymphatic vessel?
lymph escpaes form cells and tissues and is returned to bloodstream balanced fluids within body
What is a thymus?
necessary for development of immune system
What is a tonsil?
protects against pathogens in pharynx
What is a spleen?
cleanses blood and removes old red blood cells
What is a lymph node?
cleanses lymph fluid of bacteria, and foreign cells making lymopcytes and infection-fighting cells. don't take blood pressure on same side as someone with a mastectomy.
What is a nervous system?
consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and nerves functioning to receive sensory information and coordinate the body’s response governing sensation, movement, and thought.
What is a CNS?
central nervous system made brain (coordinated body functions) and spinal cord (transmits messages to and from the brain) running and reaching everything is important for consciousness.
What is the PNS?
peripheral nervous system with nerves that enter and leave spinal cord and travel between brain and organs without passing through spinal cord.
senory nerves- pick up information form throughout body and transmit to spinal cord and brain
motor nerves- carry messages from brain to body
What is autonomic nervous system?
division of peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary motor functions. digestion and heart rate with sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
What is the sympathetic nervous system?
fight or flight response when body in crisis engaged. Heart to beat faster, lungs to breathe deeper, and blood vessels to constrict
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
times of relaxation feed-or-breed response increased blood flow to digestive tract and reproductive organs slowing heart down
pale and sweaty indicated constricted blood vessels- sumpathetic discarge
What is the digestive system?
made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas and functions to ingest, digest, and absorb nutrients to the body food travels thorugh body and is digested broken down into absorbable forms.
What is a stomach?
muscular hollow sac between esophagus and small intestine where digestion of food begins by expanding as fills with food. gastric acid juices break down food
what is a small intestine?
muscular tube between stomach and alrge instestine, divided into duodenu, jejunum, and ileum, receives partially digested food from stomach and continues digestion with nutrients absorbed by body through walls
What is a large intestine?
- muscular tube removes water form waste products received from small intestine and moves anything not absorbed by body toward excretion from body
What is liver?
largest organ of body, produces bile to assist in breakdown of fats and assists in metabolism of various substances in body. detoxifyinges harmful substances, stores sugar, and assists in production of blood products.
What is gallbladder?
sac on underside of liver that stores bile produced by liver
what is pancreas?
gland located behind stomach produces insulin and (carbohydrate, protein and fat) juices that assist in digestion of food in duodenum of small intestine
What is spleen?
organ located in upper quadrant of abdomen acts as blood filtration system for old blood and reservoir for reserves of blood in case of significant blood loss
What is appendix?
small tube located near junction of small and large intestine in right lower quadrant of abdomen, function not well understand. inflammation common cause of abdominal pain made up of lymphatic tissue
What is an integumentary system?
skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands functioning to form protective barrier and aids in temperature regulation
What is skin?
- later of tissue between body and external environment functions as protection (keep out microorganism, debris and unwanted chemicals), water balance (stops water loss, stops environmental fromentering body), temperature regulation (dilate to carry more blood and constrict to prevent heat loss, perspirate and evaportate and fat layer), excretion (salt and excess water released) , and shock absorption
What is epidermis?
outer layer of skin four layers outermost dead cells sloughed off, pigment and living in deeper cells no blood vessels.
What is dermis?
- inner (second) layer of kin, rich in blood vessels and nerves, found beneath epidermis. sweat glands, sebaceous oild glands, and hair follicels, nerve endings, with this layer open cuasing a lot of problems rpfosue bleeding and intense pain.
What is subcutaneous layer?
layers of fat and soft tissues found below dermis. shock absorption and insulation .
What is endocrine system?
pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, testes, and ovaries funcitoining to regulate metabolic/hormonal activities of the body
What is insulin?
- a hormone produced by pancres or taken as medication by diabetics
What is epinephrine?
hormone produced by body as medication dilates respiratory passages and used to relieve sever allergic reacitons. neurotransmitters engaging sympathetic nervous system affecting heart and bronchial
What is the pineal gland?
regulates circadian rhythm in brain by ear
What is the pituitary gland?
below pineal regulates many other endocrine glands
What is the thyroid and parathyroid glands?
near adams apple regulates metabolic rate and regulates blood calciulm levels
what is the thymus gland?
above lungs develops immune system
What is the adrenal gland?
- regulates water and electrolyte levels
what is the ovaries?
regulates female reproductive organs
what is the pancreas?
- regulates blood sugar levels
What are the testis?
regulates male reproductive system
What is the renal/urinary system?
consisting of the kidneys, ureter, urinary bladder, and urethra which functions to filter waste products out of the blood and remove them from the body regulate fluid levels, filter chemicals, and adjust body pH
what are kidneys?
organs of renal system used to filter blood and regulate fluid levels in body produce urine. filter urea from blood provide fluid balance by regulating uptake of sodium and produce bicardobante for blood.
what is the bladder?
round saclike organ of renal system as a reservoir for urine
what are ureters?
tubes connecting kidneys to bladder transporting urine
What is the urethra?
- tube connecting balder to vagina or penis for excretion of urine. transport urine to exterior
What is the reproductive system?
body system that is responsible for human reproduction
What is the male reproductive system?
- including testes, epididymis, vas deferens, penis, seminal vesicles, prostate gland and functions to produce sperm for reproduction
What are the testes?
male organs of reproduction used for the production of sperm secretes testosterone. housed in scrotum outside body.
What is the vas deferents?
transports sperm to urethra
What is the epidermis?
What is the seminal vesicles?
secretes fluid for semen
What is the prostate gland?
secretes fluid for semen
What is the bulbourethral gland?
secretes fluid for semen
What is the penis?
organ of male reproduction responsible for sexual intercourse and the transfer of sperm delivers semen during intercourse
What is the female reproductive system?
ovaries, fallopian tubes (oviducts), uterus, vagina, vulva, and breasts- produces eggs for reproduction and provides place and nutrients for growing baby
What is the ovary?
producing organs within female reproductive system. produces ova and secretes estrogen and progesterone
What is the uterus?
female organ of reproduction used to house developing fetus. muscular organ along midline in lower quadrants of female abdomen can seriously bleed.
What is the vagina?
female organ of reproduction used for both sexual intercourse and an exit from uterus to fetus receives semen during intercourse
What is the breast?
What is the fallopian tube?
transports ovum to uterus where egg fertilized
What is the vulva?
protects vagianl orifigc and urinary meatus
What is anatomic position?
facing forward, hands at sides, palms facing forward
What is palmar?
refers to palm of hand