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Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (25):
1

Falciform ligament

Layers of peritoneum come together on the anterior surface of the liver, attaching it to the anterior wall

2

What ligament suspends the liver to the diaphragm?

Coronary ligament

3

How many functional units does the liver have?

8 - each gets it own branch of the hepatic artery and portal vein, this has surgical importance for tumour removal removal

4

What is the 'caput medusae'?

blood being diverted to anastomosis

5

What is 'haematemesis'?

vomiting blood

6

The main pancreatic duct and common bile duct combine and pass through the....

ampulla of vater at the Sphincter of Oddi.
increase in parasympathetic activity favours opening of the Sphincter of Oddi and the movement of bile and pancreatic juices into the duodenum.
Increase in sympathetic activity tends to constrict the Sphincter of Oddi and prevents bile release, so it is stored in the gall bladder.

7

Where is bile produced and stored?

Produced - liver
Stored - gall bladder

8

What are the 5 parts of the colon?

1. Caecum and appendix
2. Ascending colon
3. Transverse colon
4. Descending colon
5. Sigmoid colon and rectum

9

What is diverticulosis?

Multiple outpouching of the sigmoid colon that are not inflamed. Commonly cause no symptoms.

10

What is diverticulitis?

GIT disease. Inflamed and infected diverticula leading to trapped faeces

11

What are diverticula?

Small pouches that bulge outwards through the colon. A true diverticulum includes all three layers of the gut; the lining mucosa, the muscularis, and the outer serosa. False diverticula are missing the muscularis and are therefore very thin walled. Colonic diverticula are typically false.

12

What is the peritoneum?

Lining of the inside of the abdominal cavity. It is a continuous, shiny and transparent serous membrane, consisting of parietal and visceral peritoneum.

13

Parietal peritoneum

Lines the inside surface of the abdominal wall, the anterior, lateral and posterior walls, creating the peritoneal cavity.

14

What is the double layer of peritoneum?

Mesentery
On the posterior abdominal wall, the left and right peritoneum unite to form a double layer of peritoneum that projects into the peritoneal cavity and encloses various digestive organs, making them intraperitoneal.

15

Retro-peritoneal

Single layer of perioneum running over them, usually on the posterior wall.

16

What is the greater omentum?

4-layered structure, it is a fatty wall that covers the front part of the abdomen, helping to protect the organs.

17

GIT arteries and spinal levels

Coeliac artery - T12
Superior mesenteric artery - L1
Inferior mesenteric artery - L3

18

What does the coeliac artery supply?

The foregut - mouth to the end of the first 2 parts of the duodenum. The liver, pancreas and gall bladder develop out of the foregut.

19

What does the superior mesenteric artery supply?

The midgut - 5m in length, from the rest of the duodenum to the first 2/3rds of the colon

20

What does the inferior mesenteric artery supply?

Supplies the transverse colon onwards.

21

Where does the blood from the GIT drain into?

The hepatic portal vein, which takes blood to the liver.

22

How many teeth fo children have?

20

23

How many teeth do adults have?

32
16 maxillary
16 mandibular

24

5 tastes of the tongue

sweet, salty, bitter, mani, sour

25

Causes of a peptic ulcer

heliobacter pylori bacterial infection (80%)
chronic alcohol/aspirin abuse (20%)