Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (282)
The CNS vs the PNS?
Brain and spinal cord vs spinal and cranial nerves
Myelin in the CNS vs PNS?
Meninges and epineurium
Nerve bodies in the CNS vs PNS?
Nuclei vs ganglion
Axon bundles in the CNS vs PNS?
Tracts vs nerves
Groove + elevated bits of the brain?
Sulci + gyri
The brain stem descends through the?
Order of the brain stem top to bottom?
Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata
Name cranial nerves I-XII?
Olfactory, Oculomotor, Optic, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Spinal Accesory, Hypoglossal
What colours are the outer and inner spinal cord?
Outer white and inner grey
Pairs of spinal nerves?
8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral
Number of vertebrae?
7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal
Where does the spinal cord end and what does it form?
Between L1-L3 and the cauda equina
How do pairs of spinal nerves arise?
Run from the intervertebral foraminae above vertebrae until C8 then arise below
Signals going in and out spinal nerves summary?
- Afferent sensory signal passes through dorsal root ganglion into dorsal rootlets
- Efferent motor signals exit ventrally through ventral rootlets
How do sensory signals enter the spinal cord?
How do motor signals exit the spinal cord?
Horns of the inner grey matter?
Dorsal, ventral and lateral (only in sympathetic chain)
Formation of spinal nerve?
- Dorsal rootlets join with ventral rootlets
- This means there is a mix of motor and sensory fibres
- Spinal nerve splits after rootlets join into dorsal and ventral rami
What does the dorsal rami supply?
Dorsal 1/3 of the body + no limbs
What does the ventral rami supply?
Ventral 2/3 of the body + limbs
Name of segments supplies by nerve pairs?
Sympathetic chains runs from?
Parasympathetic outflow runs from?
CN III, VII, IX and S2,3,4
What lobe controls the somatosensory area?
What lobe supplies the somatomotor area?
Upper and motor neurons are on what side to the area of movement?
Upper = opposite and lower = same
Division of the thoracic cavity that the heart is?
How is the mediastinum divided?
Superior and inferior (anterior, middle and posterior)
What part of the mediastinum does the heart sit in?
What part of the mediastinum does the aortic arch sit in?
Layers of the heart (outer to inner)?
Pericardium, epicardium, myocardium and endocardium
Layers of the pericardium?
Outer fibrous and inner serous
Sub-layers of the serous pericardium?
Visceral and parietal
Connects AV valve to ventricles?
Chordae tendinea and papillary muscles
All valves have 3 cusps except?
Where do the coronary arteries arise?
At the coronary ostia of the ascending aorta
Where does the coronary ostia lie?
Just above the aortic valve
How many pulmonary veins?
How many pulmonary arteries?
4 parts of the aorta?
Ascending, arch, thoracic, abdominal
What makes up the descending aorta?
Thoracic + abdominal
Branches of the thoracic aorta?
Intercostal, bronchial, mediastinal, oesophageal, phrenic, pericardial
Branches of the ascending aorta?
Branches of the aortic arch?
Brachiocephallic, left common carotid and left subclavian
Branches of the braciocephallic artery?
Right common carotid and right subclavian
Branches of the subclavian arteries?
Vertebral, internal thoracic and axillary
Blood flow to the arms?
Axillary, brachial, radial/ulnar
The axillary artery is a branch of the?
3 branches of the abdominal aorta that stick out anteriorly?
Coeliac, SMA and IMA
Paired arteries between the SMA and IMA?
Renal and gonadal
Abdominal aorta bifurcates into?
Left and right iliac
Iliac arteries bifurcate into?
Internal ad external
Only unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta?
Veterbral level of coeliac trunk?
Vertebral level of SMA?
Vertebral level of renal arteries?
Vertebral level of gonadal arteries?
Vertebral level of IMA?
Vertebral level of IVC bifurcation?
Vertebral level of abdominal aorta bifurcation?
Branches of the right coronary artery?
Right marginal and posterior interventricular
Branches of left coronary artery?
LAD/anterior interventricular and circumflex
Anastomoses of the coronary arteries?
Posterior + anterior interventricular and circumflex + right coronary artery in atrioventricular groove
Large vein that drains heart smaller veins?
Where does the coronary sinus drain into?
Position of IVC and descending aorta in relation to eachother?
Aorta on left and IVC on right
What side of the body does the azygous vein run?
Vertebral level of the arch of the azygous vein + what side of the body does it run?
T4 + right
The azygous veins joint on to the?
What does the azygous vein do?
Drain blood from the posterior intercostals
Name for muscle dividing right and left side of the heart?
Flaps on the atria?
What nerve innervates the diaphragm and what forms it?
Phrenic and C3,4,5
The phrenic nerve runs?
Anterior over the lung base and across the pericardium
The vagus nerve runs?
Posterior to lung base and behind the heart
Space behind great vessels?
Transverse pericardial sinus
Where is the fossa ovalis and what was it called when open?
RA and foramen ovale
Region an artery supplies?
The vertebral arteries join to form?
Verterbral arteries run?
Through the transverse foramina and though the foramen magnum
Carotid sheaths are made of?
Carotid sheaths contain?
Vagus nerve, carotids and internal jugular vein
What forms the BBB?
Tight junctions between brain capillary epithelium
CNS support/myelin producing cells vs PNS?
Astrocytes vs Schwann cells
Function of an anastomose?
Provides alternate routes for blood flow
Alternate routes of an anastomose?
Disadvantage of anastomoses?
Collaterals bleed from both sides
Arteries with no alternate routes?
7 common pulses?
Carotid, radial, brachial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis
Right lymph duct runs?
Under clavicle into right venous angle
Thoracic duct runs?
Over clavicle into left venous angle
Function of lymph system?
Carries tissue fluid leaked from capillaries to nodes for screening then back into systemic circulation
2 types of bone?
Outer cortical and inner cancellous
Areas of the bone?
Diaphysis, metaphysis, epiphysis and epiphyseal growth plate
Epiphyseal growth plate undergoes ... to from adult bone?
Outer sleeve of bone?
Bone marrow changes colour from?
Red to yellow
5 types of bone?
Flat, long, irregular, sesamoid and short
How do new bones heal?
Periosteum covers break and allows callus to form
Common breaks in children?
Clavicle and neck of femur
The skull is divided into the?
Viscerocranium and neurocranium
Name the 10 bones you need to know of the skull?
Frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, maxilla, mandible, occipital, nasal, ethmoid and zygomatic
Le Fort I?
Upper lip area of maxilla
Le Fort II?
Maxilla + nasal
Le Fort III
Maxilla + nasal + zygomatic
What is a foramen?
What is a fossa?
Regions of the mandible?
Mental process with mental foramen, body of the mandible, ramus, coronoid (anterior) and condylar (posterior) process
Primary vs secondary curvatures face?
In vs out
Regions of the single vertebrae?
Vertebral body, pedicle, transverse foramina, trasnverse process, articular process, lamina, spinous process
The pedicle connects?
The vertebral body to transverse process
The lamina connects?
The spinous process to the transverse process
The transverse process attaches to?
Function of the articular process?
Joints vertebrae via facet joints
11 and 12
Ribs attach to sternum via?
5 types of muscle?
Circular, flat + aponeurosis, fusiform, pennate, quadrate
Example of circular muscle?
Example of fusiform muscle?
Example of flat muscle with aponeurosis?
Example of pennate muscle?
Example of quadrate muscle?
What is an aponeurosis?
Divisions of the lower leg?
Posterior, lateral and anterior
Divisions of the thigh?
Posterior, medial and anterior
Divisions of the upper arm?
Posterior and anterior
Deltoid muscle origins and insertion?
Spine of the scapula, acromion process, lateral clavicle and deltoid tuberosity of humerous
Are tendons contractile?
Function of tendons?
Join muscle to bone at their origin and insertion
C1 name and feature?
Atlas and no spinous process
C2 name and feature?
Axis and odontoid process
C7 name and feature?
Vertebra prominens and first palpable process
Most stable type of joint?
Least stable type of joint?
Types of fibrous joint?
Syndemoses, synchondroses and symphyses
Syndemoses joint feature and examples?
Join bones via fibrous membrane and fontanelle and suture joints
Synchondroses/ secondary cartilaginous joint feature + example?
Joins hyaline cartilage to bone + spinal vertebrae
Sympheses joint feature?
Synovial joints are?
2 or more bones articulating in a fluid synovial cavity
- Synovial joint between condylar process and articular tubercle of the parietal bone
- Articular disc splits cavity into superior and inferior
Function of the synovial TMJ joint?
Allows condylar process to glide over articular tubercle
Layers of the uterus?
Endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium
Pouch between bladder and uterus
Pouch on the posterior uterus and function?
Recto-uterine pouch (of Douglas) and collects abnormal fluid
Journey of ovum summary?
- Released from ovary into peritoneum
- Fimbriae move ovum into infundibulum
- Cilia move ovum down uterine tube into ampulla
Normal fertilisation takes place?
Zygote implants outside ampulla
Journey of sperm summary?
Seminiferous tubules - rete testis - epididymis -vas - joins seminal gland to form ejaculatory duct - ejaculatory ducts join in prostate gland and run into urethra
Seminal gland function?
Produces seminal fluid
Spermatic cord contains?
Vas + testicular artery + pampiniform plexus of veins
Control of erection?
Control of ejaculation?
Male and female sterilisation?
Clipping of vas or uterine tubes
Vertebral level of oesophagus and trachea origin?
Vertebral level of lung apices?
Vertebral level of suprasternal notch + first rib?
Vertebral level of top of aortic arch?
Vertebral level of sternomanubrial joint + bifurcation of bronchi?
Level of oblique fissure anteriorly vs posteriorly?
6th rib vs T3
Level of horizontal fissure anteriorly vs posteriorly?
4th rib vs 5th rib
Vertebral level of IVC and phrenic entering diaphragm?
Vertebral level of oesophagus and vagus nerve entering diaphragm?
Vertebral level of aorta, azygous and thoracic duct entering diaphragm?
Two layers of the pleura form the?
Does the hilum have pleural coverage?
What forms the interlobar fissures?
Each lung lobe is supplied by a?
How many bronchopulmonary segments per lung?
Segmental bronchi supply?
Intercostal neurovascular bundle order?
Where does the interocostal neurovascular bundles lie?
Under the ribs
Innveration of the intercostal nerve?
Posterior intercostal blood supply?
Thoracic aorta + azygous veins
Anterior intercostal blood supply?
Internal throracic artery + thoracic vein
Neck muscles we need to know?
Trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, scalneus anterior, medial and posterior
Chest/arm muscles we need to know?
Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, deltoid
Abdominal muscles we need to know?
External and internal oblique, rectus abdmonis and transverse abdominis
Major superficial vein in the arm and where does it run?
Cephallic vein and in the delto-pectoral groove
Major superficial vein in the leg?
Great saphenous vein
Largest vein in the body?
The inguinal ligament is formed by ..... and runs between what?
External oblique aponeurosis and between the ASIS and pubic tubercle
What forms the inguinal canal?
Aponeurosis of the abdominal muscles meets at the?
Name of the point where the abdominal muscle meets its aponeurosis?
Inguinal canal contains?
Spermatic cord (males) and round ligament (females)
Direct hernia goes through?
Indirect hernia goes through?
Deep + superficial ring
Superficial ring is also known as the?
Test between direct and indirect hernia?
Press on superficial ring, ask patient to cough, direct will reappear and indirect won't
Outer layers of the spermatic cord?
Outer, cremasteric and inner spermatic fascia
What is the rima glottidis?
Opening between vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage of larynx
What cranial nerves run from the midbrain?
What cranial nerves run from the pons?
What cranial nerves run from the pontomedullary junction?
What cranial nerves run from the cerebellopontine angle?
CNVII and CNVIII
What cranial nerves run from the medulla oblongata?
CNI/ Olfactory function?
CNII,III,IV,VI/ Oculomotor, optic, trochlear, abducens function?
CNV/ Trigeminal function?
Branches of CNV/trigeminal?
CNVa (opthalmic), CNVb (maxillary) and CNVc (mandibular)
CNVb name, function and where it runs from?
Maxillary, innervates nasal cavity + upper mouth and runs from foramen rotundum
CNVc name, function and where it runs from?
Mandibular, innervates bottom mouth and runs from foramen ovale
Branch of CNVc?
Lingual nerve innervates?
Anterior 2/3rds of the tongue
CNVII/ Facial function?
Muscles of facial expression, submandibular + sublingual glands
CNVIII/ Vestibulocochlear function?
Balance and hearing
CNIX/ Glossopharyngeal function and where is runs from?
Parotid glands, posterior tongue, oropharynx and runs from the jugular foramen
CNX/ Vagus function and where is runs from?
Pharynx, larynx, soft palate, lungs/heart/gut
CNXI/ Accessory function?
Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius
CNXII/ Hypoglossal function and where it runs from?
Muscles of the tongue and runs from hypoglossal canal
9 sub-regions of the abdomen?
Hypochondriac, epigastric, lumbar, umbilical, iliac, hypogastric
4 abdominal quadrants?
RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ
Mouth anatomy summary?
Hard palate, soft palate, gingiva, uvula, palatine tonsils, frendulum
All tongue muscles are innervated by CNXII except .... which is innervated by .... ?
Palatoglossus and vagus nerve
4 regions of the stomach?
Fundus, body, antrum, pyloris
Fold of the stomach?
Sphincter connecting stomach to duodenum?
3 parts of the small intestine?
Duodenum, jejunum and ileum
Part of the duodenum and the angle in which they run?
1st and 2nd are descending, 3rd is horizontal and 4th is ascending
D4 meets the jejunum at the?
7 parts of the colon?
Caecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anus
Flextures and quadrants of the colon?
Hepatic flexture in RUQ and splenic flexture in LUQ
Areas behind the ascending and descending colon?
The appendix is an extension of the?
Caecum connects to appendix via?
Vertebral level of recto-sigmoid junction?
Muscles that line the pelvic floor?
Rectum becomes what before passing through levator ani?
Rectal ampulla and anal canal
What divides the upper 2/3rds and lower 1/3rd of the anal canal?
Innervation, sphincter and blood supply above the pectinate line?
Inferior hypogastric artery (T12-L2), internal and IMA/IMV
Innervation, sphincter and blood supply below the pectinate line?
Pudenal (S2,3,4), external and internal iliac A + V
What makes up the pudenal nerve?
What makes up the inferior hypogastric nerve?
3 branches of coeliac trunk?
Splenic, left gastric and common hepatic
Where does the splenic artery run + branches?
Over the pancreas and left gastro-omental
Where does the left gastric artery run?
Lesser curvature of stomach
Where does the left gastro-omental artery run?
Greater curvature of the stomach
Branches of the common hepatic artery?
Right gastric and gastroduodenal (branches to give right gastro-omental)
Where does the right gastro-omental artery come from?
The gastroduodenal artery as a branch of the common hepatic
4 lobes of the liver?
Left, right, cadudate, quadrate
Anterior liver ligament?
How many liver sub-segments?
Blood supply in and out of liver?
Hepatic artery and portal vein enter and blood drains via central vein into 1 of 3 hepatic veins which join IVC
The hepatodoudenal ligament is made from the .... and contains the ..... ?
Lesser omentum and major portal triad
Portal vein drains the?
Splenic, SMV and IMV
Biliary tree summary?
- Common bile duct is formed by the cystic + hepatic
- Common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of vater
- Ampulla of vater drains via the spincter of oddi into D2
4 muscles of mastication?
Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral ptyergoid
Muscle that opens jaw?
Where is the adrenal glands?
Suprarenal (above kidneys)
Muscle of the cheek that moves food during mastication?
Bones of the hand?
Lunate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, triquetrum, pisiform
What 2 words mean “of the tongue” to help remember innervation?
Glossal and lingual
Nerves that innverate the tongue and which area?
Hypoglossal (all), lingual (anterior 2/3) and glossopharyngeal (posterior 1/3)
Which nerves innervates which facial glands?
Facial (submandibular and sublingual) + glossopharygeal (parotid)
Nerve supply of the rectum?
S4/ inferior rectal nerve
How does the pudendal nerve run to reach below the pectinate line?
Out of the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen and into perineum via the lesser sciatic foramen
The pudendal nerve is a branch of the?
What forms the sacral plexus?
Muscle that wraps around recto-anal junction to control defection?
Where does the puborectalis attach?
Innervation of the pharynx constrictor muscles?
Outer (CNX) and inner (all CNX) except stylopharygeus in the nasopharynx which is CNIX)
Bottom lump of the frenulum that separates the sublingual glands?
Where does the parotid gland secrete via?
Opposite the 2nd upper molar
Types of teeth?
4 incisor, (then per side) 2 canine, 2 pre-molar and 3 molar (+ 1 wisdom)
Stomach, liver, gall bladder, tail of pancreas, D1, jejunum, ilieum, caecum, appendix, trasverse colon, sigmoid colon and spleen
D2,3,4, ascending + descending colon, rectum, head/neck/body of pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, abdominal aorta and IVC
2 parts of the lesser omentum?
Hepatoduodenal ligament + hepatogastric ligament
Where does the lesser omentum attach?
Lesser curvature of stomach
The greater omentum attaches where?
Greater curvature if the stomach
Branches of the superior mesenteric artery?
Ileal, jejunal, ileocolic, right and middle colic
Branches of the inferior mesenteric artery?
Left colic and sigmoid
How many layers in the greater omentum + lesser omentum?
4 + 2
Nerves going to the adrenal glands run from?
Where does the inferior epigastric artery arise from?
The external iliac artery
Where does the needle need to be positioned during an abdominocentesis + why?
Lateral to the rectus sheath + avoids the inferior epigastric artery