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Year 1 MBChB Anatomy > Anatomy > Flashcards

Flashcards in Anatomy Deck (282)
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1

The CNS vs the PNS?

Brain and spinal cord vs spinal and cranial nerves

2

Myelin in the CNS vs PNS?

Meninges and epineurium

3

Nerve bodies in the CNS vs PNS?

Nuclei vs ganglion

4

Axon bundles in the CNS vs PNS?

Tracts vs nerves

5

Groove + elevated bits of the brain?

Sulci + gyri

6

The brain stem descends through the?

Foramen magnum

7

Order of the brain stem top to bottom?

Midbrain, pons and medulla oblongata

8

Name cranial nerves I-XII?

Olfactory, Oculomotor, Optic, Trochlear, Trigeminal, Abducens, Facial, Vestibulocochlear, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus, Spinal Accesory, Hypoglossal

9

What colours are the outer and inner spinal cord?

Outer white and inner grey

10

Pairs of spinal nerves?

8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral

11

Number of vertebrae?

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, 4 coccygeal

12

Where does the spinal cord end and what does it form?

Between L1-L3 and the cauda equina

13

How do pairs of spinal nerves arise?

Run from the intervertebral foraminae above vertebrae until C8 then arise below

14

Signals going in and out spinal nerves summary?

- Afferent sensory signal passes through dorsal root ganglion into dorsal rootlets
- Efferent motor signals exit ventrally through ventral rootlets

15

How do sensory signals enter the spinal cord?

Dorsally

16

How do motor signals exit the spinal cord?

Ventrally

17

Horns of the inner grey matter?

Dorsal, ventral and lateral (only in sympathetic chain)

18

Formation of spinal nerve?

- Dorsal rootlets join with ventral rootlets
- This means there is a mix of motor and sensory fibres
- Spinal nerve splits after rootlets join into dorsal and ventral rami

19

What does the dorsal rami supply?

Dorsal 1/3 of the body + no limbs

20

What does the ventral rami supply?

Ventral 2/3 of the body + limbs

21

Name of segments supplies by nerve pairs?

Dermatomes

22

Nipple dermatome?

T4

23

Umbilical dermatome?

T10

24

Sympathetic chains runs from?

T1-L2

25

Parasympathetic outflow runs from?

CN III, VII, IX and S2,3,4

26

What lobe controls the somatosensory area?

The parietal

27

What lobe supplies the somatomotor area?

The frontal

28

Upper and motor neurons are on what side to the area of movement?

Upper = opposite and lower = same

29

Division of the thoracic cavity that the heart is?

Mediastinum

30

How is the mediastinum divided?

Superior and inferior (anterior, middle and posterior)

31

What part of the mediastinum does the heart sit in?

Middle inferior

32

What part of the mediastinum does the aortic arch sit in?

Superior

33

Layers of the heart (outer to inner)?

Pericardium, epicardium, myocardium and endocardium

34

Layers of the pericardium?

Outer fibrous and inner serous

35

Sub-layers of the serous pericardium?

Visceral and parietal

36

Connects AV valve to ventricles?

Chordae tendinea and papillary muscles

37

All valves have 3 cusps except?

Mitral

38

Where do the coronary arteries arise?

At the coronary ostia of the ascending aorta

39

Where does the coronary ostia lie?

Just above the aortic valve

40

How many pulmonary veins?

4

41

How many pulmonary arteries?

2

42

4 parts of the aorta?

Ascending, arch, thoracic, abdominal

43

What makes up the descending aorta?

Thoracic + abdominal

44

Branches of the thoracic aorta?

Intercostal, bronchial, mediastinal, oesophageal, phrenic, pericardial

45

Branches of the ascending aorta?

Coronary arteries

46

Branches of the aortic arch?

Brachiocephallic, left common carotid and left subclavian

47

Branches of the braciocephallic artery?

Right common carotid and right subclavian

48

Branches of the subclavian arteries?

Vertebral, internal thoracic and axillary

49

Blood flow to the arms?

Axillary, brachial, radial/ulnar

50

The axillary artery is a branch of the?

Subclavian artery

51

3 branches of the abdominal aorta that stick out anteriorly?

Coeliac, SMA and IMA

52

Paired arteries between the SMA and IMA?

Renal and gonadal

53

Abdominal aorta bifurcates into?

Left and right iliac

54

Iliac arteries bifurcate into?

Internal ad external

55

Only unpaired branch of the abdominal aorta?

Median sacral

56

Veterbral level of coeliac trunk?

T12

57

Vertebral level of SMA?

L1

58

Vertebral level of renal arteries?

L1

59

Vertebral level of gonadal arteries?

L2

60

Vertebral level of IMA?

L3

61

Vertebral level of IVC bifurcation?

L5

62

Vertebral level of abdominal aorta bifurcation?

L4

63

Branches of the right coronary artery?

Right marginal and posterior interventricular

64

Branches of left coronary artery?

LAD/anterior interventricular and circumflex

65

Anastomoses of the coronary arteries?

Posterior + anterior interventricular and circumflex + right coronary artery in atrioventricular groove

66

Large vein that drains heart smaller veins?

Coronary sinus

67

Where does the coronary sinus drain into?

RA

68

Position of IVC and descending aorta in relation to eachother?

Aorta on left and IVC on right

69

What side of the body does the azygous vein run?

Right

70

Vertebral level of the arch of the azygous vein + what side of the body does it run?

T4 + right

71

The azygous veins joint on to the?

SVC

72

What does the azygous vein do?

Drain blood from the posterior intercostals

73

Name for muscle dividing right and left side of the heart?

Septum

74

Flaps on the atria?

Auricles

75

What nerve innervates the diaphragm and what forms it?

Phrenic and C3,4,5

76

The phrenic nerve runs?

Anterior over the lung base and across the pericardium

77

The vagus nerve runs?

Posterior to lung base and behind the heart

78

Space behind great vessels?

Transverse pericardial sinus

79

Where is the fossa ovalis and what was it called when open?

RA and foramen ovale

80

Region an artery supplies?

Its territory

81

The vertebral arteries join to form?

Basilar artery

82

Verterbral arteries run?

Through the transverse foramina and though the foramen magnum

83

Carotid sheaths are made of?

Deep fascia

84

Carotid sheaths contain?

Vagus nerve, carotids and internal jugular vein

85

What forms the BBB?

Tight junctions between brain capillary epithelium

86

CNS support/myelin producing cells vs PNS?

Astrocytes vs Schwann cells

87

Function of an anastomose?

Provides alternate routes for blood flow

88

Alternate routes of an anastomose?

Collaterals

89

Disadvantage of anastomoses?

Collaterals bleed from both sides

90

Arteries with no alternate routes?

End-arteries

91

7 common pulses?

Carotid, radial, brachial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial and dorsalis pedis

92

Right lymph duct runs?

Under clavicle into right venous angle

93

Thoracic duct runs?

Over clavicle into left venous angle

94

Function of lymph system?

Carries tissue fluid leaked from capillaries to nodes for screening then back into systemic circulation

95

2 types of bone?

Outer cortical and inner cancellous

96

Areas of the bone?

Diaphysis, metaphysis, epiphysis and epiphyseal growth plate

97

Epiphyseal growth plate undergoes ... to from adult bone?

Endochondral ossification

98

Outer sleeve of bone?

Periosteum

99

Bone marrow changes colour from?

Red to yellow

100

5 types of bone?

Flat, long, irregular, sesamoid and short

101

How do new bones heal?

Periosteum covers break and allows callus to form

102

Common breaks in children?

Clavicle and neck of femur

103

The skull is divided into the?

Viscerocranium and neurocranium

104

Name the 10 bones you need to know of the skull?

Frontal, parietal, temporal, sphenoid, maxilla, mandible, occipital, nasal, ethmoid and zygomatic

105

Le Fort I?

Upper lip area of maxilla

106

Le Fort II?

Maxilla + nasal

107

Le Fort III

Maxilla + nasal + zygomatic

108

What is a foramen?

A hole

109

What is a fossa?

A dent

110

Regions of the mandible?

Mental process with mental foramen, body of the mandible, ramus, coronoid (anterior) and condylar (posterior) process

111

Primary vs secondary curvatures face?

In vs out

112

Regions of the single vertebrae?

Vertebral body, pedicle, transverse foramina, trasnverse process, articular process, lamina, spinous process

113

The pedicle connects?

The vertebral body to transverse process

114

The lamina connects?

The spinous process to the transverse process

115

The transverse process attaches to?

The ribs

116

Function of the articular process?

Joints vertebrae via facet joints

117

True ribs?

1-7

118

False ribs?

8-10

119

Floating ribs?

11 and 12

120

Ribs attach to sternum via?

Costal cartilage

121

5 types of muscle?

Circular, flat + aponeurosis, fusiform, pennate, quadrate

122

Example of circular muscle?

Oribicularis oris

123

Example of fusiform muscle?

Biceps brachii

124

Example of flat muscle with aponeurosis?

External oblique

125

Example of pennate muscle?

Deltoid

126

Example of quadrate muscle?

Rectus abdominis

127

What is an aponeurosis?

Flattened tendon

128

Divisions of the lower leg?

Posterior, lateral and anterior

129

Divisions of the thigh?

Posterior, medial and anterior

130

Divisions of the upper arm?

Posterior and anterior

131

Deltoid muscle origins and insertion?

Spine of the scapula, acromion process, lateral clavicle and deltoid tuberosity of humerous

132

Are tendons contractile?

No

133

Function of tendons?

Join muscle to bone at their origin and insertion

134

C1 name and feature?

Atlas and no spinous process

135

C2 name and feature?

Axis and odontoid process

136

C7 name and feature?

Vertebra prominens and first palpable process

137

Most stable type of joint?

Fibrous

138

Least stable type of joint?

Synovial

139

Types of fibrous joint?

Syndemoses, synchondroses and symphyses

140

Syndemoses joint feature and examples?

Join bones via fibrous membrane and fontanelle and suture joints

141

Synchondroses/ secondary cartilaginous joint feature + example?

Joins hyaline cartilage to bone + spinal vertebrae

142

Sympheses joint feature?

Fibrocartilage

143

Synovial joints are?

2 or more bones articulating in a fluid synovial cavity

144

TMJ summary?

- Synovial joint between condylar process and articular tubercle of the parietal bone
- Articular disc splits cavity into superior and inferior

145

Function of the synovial TMJ joint?

Allows condylar process to glide over articular tubercle

146

Layers of the uterus?

Endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium

147

Pouch between bladder and uterus

Vesico-uterine pouch

148

Pouch on the posterior uterus and function?

Recto-uterine pouch (of Douglas) and collects abnormal fluid

149

Journey of ovum summary?

- Released from ovary into peritoneum
- Fimbriae move ovum into infundibulum
- Cilia move ovum down uterine tube into ampulla

150

Normal fertilisation takes place?

In ampulla

151

Ectopic pregnancy?

Zygote implants outside ampulla

152

Journey of sperm summary?

Seminiferous tubules - rete testis - epididymis -vas - joins seminal gland to form ejaculatory duct - ejaculatory ducts join in prostate gland and run into urethra

153

Seminal gland function?

Produces seminal fluid

154

Spermatic cord contains?

Vas + testicular artery + pampiniform plexus of veins

155

Control of erection?

Parasympathetic

156

Control of ejaculation?

Sympathetic

157

Male and female sterilisation?

Clipping of vas or uterine tubes

158

Vertebral level of oesophagus and trachea origin?

C6

159

Vertebral level of lung apices?

T1

160

Vertebral level of suprasternal notch + first rib?

T2/3

161

Vertebral level of top of aortic arch?

T4

162

Vertebral level of sternomanubrial joint + bifurcation of bronchi?

T5

163

Level of oblique fissure anteriorly vs posteriorly?

6th rib vs T3

164

Level of horizontal fissure anteriorly vs posteriorly?

4th rib vs 5th rib

165

Vertebral level of IVC and phrenic entering diaphragm?

T8

166

Vertebral level of oesophagus and vagus nerve entering diaphragm?

T10

167

Vertebral level of aorta, azygous and thoracic duct entering diaphragm?

T12

168

Two layers of the pleura form the?

Pulmonary ligaments

169

Does the hilum have pleural coverage?

No

170

What forms the interlobar fissures?

Visceral pleura

171

Each lung lobe is supplied by a?

Lobar bronchi

172

How many bronchopulmonary segments per lung?

10

173

Segmental bronchi supply?

Bronchopulmonary segments

174

Intercostal neurovascular bundle order?

VAN

175

Where does the interocostal neurovascular bundles lie?

Under the ribs

176

Innveration of the intercostal nerve?

T1-T11

177

Posterior intercostal blood supply?

Thoracic aorta + azygous veins

178

Anterior intercostal blood supply?

Internal throracic artery + thoracic vein

179

Neck muscles we need to know?

Trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, scalneus anterior, medial and posterior

180

Chest/arm muscles we need to know?

Pectoralis major, pectoralis minor, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi, deltoid

181

Abdominal muscles we need to know?

External and internal oblique, rectus abdmonis and transverse abdominis

182

Major superficial vein in the arm and where does it run?

Cephallic vein and in the delto-pectoral groove

183

Major superficial vein in the leg?

Great saphenous vein

184

Largest vein in the body?

Great saphenous

185

The inguinal ligament is formed by ..... and runs between what?

External oblique aponeurosis and between the ASIS and pubic tubercle

186

What forms the inguinal canal?

Transversalis fascia

187

Aponeurosis of the abdominal muscles meets at the?

Linea alba

188

Name of the point where the abdominal muscle meets its aponeurosis?

Linea semilunaris

189

Inguinal canal contains?

Spermatic cord (males) and round ligament (females)

190

Direct hernia goes through?

Superficial ring

191

Indirect hernia goes through?

Deep + superficial ring

192

Superficial ring is also known as the?

V-shaped defect

193

Test between direct and indirect hernia?

Press on superficial ring, ask patient to cough, direct will reappear and indirect won't

194

Outer layers of the spermatic cord?

Outer, cremasteric and inner spermatic fascia

195

What is the rima glottidis?

Opening between vocal cords and arytenoid cartilage of larynx

196

What cranial nerves run from the midbrain?

CNI-IV

197

What cranial nerves run from the pons?

CNV

198

What cranial nerves run from the pontomedullary junction?

CNVI

199

What cranial nerves run from the cerebellopontine angle?

CNVII and CNVIII

200

What cranial nerves run from the medulla oblongata?

CNVIX-XII

201

CNI/ Olfactory function?

Smell

202

CNII,III,IV,VI/ Oculomotor, optic, trochlear, abducens function?

Eye movement

203

CNV/ Trigeminal function?

Mouth

204

Branches of CNV/trigeminal?

CNVa (opthalmic), CNVb (maxillary) and CNVc (mandibular)

205

CNVb name, function and where it runs from?

Maxillary, innervates nasal cavity + upper mouth and runs from foramen rotundum

206

CNVc name, function and where it runs from?

Mandibular, innervates bottom mouth and runs from foramen ovale

207

Branch of CNVc?

Lingual nerve

208

Lingual nerve innervates?

Anterior 2/3rds of the tongue

209

CNVII/ Facial function?

Muscles of facial expression, submandibular + sublingual glands

210

CNVIII/ Vestibulocochlear function?

Balance and hearing

211

CNIX/ Glossopharyngeal function and where is runs from?

Parotid glands, posterior tongue, oropharynx and runs from the jugular foramen

212

CNX/ Vagus function and where is runs from?

Pharynx, larynx, soft palate, lungs/heart/gut

213

CNXI/ Accessory function?

Sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

214

CNXII/ Hypoglossal function and where it runs from?

Muscles of the tongue and runs from hypoglossal canal

215

9 sub-regions of the abdomen?

Hypochondriac, epigastric, lumbar, umbilical, iliac, hypogastric

216

4 abdominal quadrants?

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, LLQ

217

Mouth anatomy summary?

Hard palate, soft palate, gingiva, uvula, palatine tonsils, frendulum

218

All tongue muscles are innervated by CNXII except .... which is innervated by .... ?

Palatoglossus and vagus nerve

219

4 regions of the stomach?

Fundus, body, antrum, pyloris

220

Fold of the stomach?

Rugae

221

Sphincter connecting stomach to duodenum?

Pyloric

222

3 parts of the small intestine?

Duodenum, jejunum and ileum

223

Part of the duodenum and the angle in which they run?

1st and 2nd are descending, 3rd is horizontal and 4th is ascending

224

D4 meets the jejunum at the?

Duodenojejunal flexture

225

7 parts of the colon?

Caecum, ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid, rectum, anus

226

Flextures and quadrants of the colon?

Hepatic flexture in RUQ and splenic flexture in LUQ

227

Areas behind the ascending and descending colon?

Paracolic gutters

228

The appendix is an extension of the?

Caecum

229

Caecum connects to appendix via?

Appendiceal orifice

230

Vertebral level of recto-sigmoid junction?

S3

231

Muscles that line the pelvic floor?

Levator ani

232

Rectum becomes what before passing through levator ani?

Rectal ampulla and anal canal

233

What divides the upper 2/3rds and lower 1/3rd of the anal canal?

Pectinate line

234

Innervation, sphincter and blood supply above the pectinate line?

Inferior hypogastric artery (T12-L2), internal and IMA/IMV

235

Innervation, sphincter and blood supply below the pectinate line?

Pudenal (S2,3,4), external and internal iliac A + V

236

What makes up the pudenal nerve?

S2,3,4

237

What makes up the inferior hypogastric nerve?

T12-L2

238

3 branches of coeliac trunk?

Splenic, left gastric and common hepatic

239

Where does the splenic artery run + branches?

Over the pancreas and left gastro-omental

240

Where does the left gastric artery run?

Lesser curvature of stomach

241

Where does the left gastro-omental artery run?

Greater curvature of the stomach

242

Branches of the common hepatic artery?

Right gastric and gastroduodenal (branches to give right gastro-omental)

243

Where does the right gastro-omental artery come from?

The gastroduodenal artery as a branch of the common hepatic

244

4 lobes of the liver?

Left, right, cadudate, quadrate

245

Anterior liver ligament?

Falciform

246

How many liver sub-segments?

8

247

Blood supply in and out of liver?

Hepatic artery and portal vein enter and blood drains via central vein into 1 of 3 hepatic veins which join IVC

248

The hepatodoudenal ligament is made from the .... and contains the ..... ?

Lesser omentum and major portal triad

249

Portal vein drains the?

Splenic, SMV and IMV

250

Biliary tree summary?

- Common bile duct is formed by the cystic + hepatic
- Common bile duct joins the pancreatic duct to form the ampulla of vater
- Ampulla of vater drains via the spincter of oddi into D2

251

4 muscles of mastication?

Temporalis, masseter, medial and lateral ptyergoid

252

Muscle that opens jaw?

Lateral pterygoid

253

TMJ innervation?

Trigeminal/ CNV

254

Where is the adrenal glands?

Suprarenal (above kidneys)

255

Muscle of the cheek that moves food during mastication?

Buccinator

256

Bones of the hand?

Lunate, scaphoid, trapezium, trapezoid, capitate, hamate, triquetrum, pisiform

257

Ankle bone?

Medial malleolus

258

What 2 words mean “of the tongue” to help remember innervation?

Glossal and lingual

259

Nerves that innverate the tongue and which area?

Hypoglossal (all), lingual (anterior 2/3) and glossopharyngeal (posterior 1/3)

260

Which nerves innervates which facial glands?

Facial (submandibular and sublingual) + glossopharygeal (parotid)

261

Nerve supply of the rectum?

S4/ inferior rectal nerve

262

How does the pudendal nerve run to reach below the pectinate line?

Out of the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen and into perineum via the lesser sciatic foramen

263

The pudendal nerve is a branch of the?

Sacral plexus

264

What forms the sacral plexus?

L4-S4

265

Muscle that wraps around recto-anal junction to control defection?

Puborectalis

266

Where does the puborectalis attach?

Pubic tubercle

267

Innervation of the pharynx constrictor muscles?

Outer (CNX) and inner (all CNX) except stylopharygeus in the nasopharynx which is CNIX)

268

Bottom lump of the frenulum that separates the sublingual glands?

Sublingual caruncle

269

Where does the parotid gland secrete via?

Opposite the 2nd upper molar

270

Types of teeth?

4 incisor, (then per side) 2 canine, 2 pre-molar and 3 molar (+ 1 wisdom)

271

Intraperitoneal organs?

Stomach, liver, gall bladder, tail of pancreas, D1, jejunum, ilieum, caecum, appendix, trasverse colon, sigmoid colon and spleen

272

Retroperitoneal organs?

D2,3,4, ascending + descending colon, rectum, head/neck/body of pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, abdominal aorta and IVC

273

2 parts of the lesser omentum?

Hepatoduodenal ligament + hepatogastric ligament

274

Where does the lesser omentum attach?

Lesser curvature of stomach

275

The greater omentum attaches where?

Greater curvature if the stomach

276

Branches of the superior mesenteric artery?

Ileal, jejunal, ileocolic, right and middle colic

277

Branches of the inferior mesenteric artery?

Left colic and sigmoid

278

How many layers in the greater omentum + lesser omentum?

4 + 2

279

Nerves going to the adrenal glands run from?

T10-L1

280

Where does the inferior epigastric artery arise from?

The external iliac artery

281

Where does the needle need to be positioned during an abdominocentesis + why?

Lateral to the rectus sheath + avoids the inferior epigastric artery

282

3 thoracoabdominal nerves + what vertebral level they arise from?

Subcostal (T12 anterior ramus), iliohypogastric (half of L1 anterior ramis) and ilioinguinal (other half of L1 anterior ramus)