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The outer material of bones is different to the inner material, what are each called and how are they different?

- outer cortex- dense, strong, heavy, compacted
- inner medulla- porous, lightweight , weaker


What is the name of the bone within the medulla?

Trabecular/ cancellous bone


How does cancellous bone compensate for weaker areas?

The structure is organised with more "struts" in areas where more pressure is applied


Where are the areas bone marrow is more likely to be found?

1. Hip bone
2. Sternum
3. Ribs
4. Vertebrae
5. cancellous regions of the femur and humerus


What is the function of bone marrow?

To produce red and white blood cells


What is the periosteum?

A dense envelope of connective tissue which surrounds bones, yet avoids joints and tendon articulations


During a fracture, why is the periosteum responsible for much of the pain?

It is well vascularised and innervated (also contains lymph vessels- but these don't contribute


Where do nutrient vessels enter the periosteum?

Near the middle of the bone
These vessels then ramify and continue through the inner medulla


Describe the process of endochondral ossification

One of the two essential processes during fetal development of the mammalian skeleton
Process by which a small hyaline cartilage piece grows and ossifies into bone. A capillary bud initiates the ossification by creating the primary ossification centre and entering the bone


How many primary ossification centres do long bones have?



What are the 4 different parts of a long bone?

Epiphysis- rounded end Epiphyseal growth plate- hyaline cartilage plate between metaphysis and epiphysis
Metaphysis- part of growth plate leading to epiphysis
Diaphysis- middle section of the bone


What are the 5 different classifications of bone?

1. Long bones- long and hollow
2. Flat bones- protective
3. Irregular bones- strangely shaped
4. Sesamoid bones- present within tendons
5. Short bones- cuboid shapes


How do fractures heal?

Weak collagen,, cartilage and bony material- collectively called callus- surrounds the fracture. The callus proceeds to remodel the bone to a normal shape


In what ways can a bone's shape be influenced?

1. Functional- due to the genetics
2. Adjacent structures apply a force
3. Bone must grow around another structure


What is a tubercle?

A bump/small rounded area


What is a condyle?

A large rounded surface at the end of some bones


What is a fossa?

A small depression or hole


Which three fossae are present in the neurocranium?

1. Anterior cranial
2. Middle cranial
3. Posterior cranial


What are foramina?

Holes for cranial nerves and blood vessels to pass through


What is the axial part of the skeleton?

The central skeleton


What is the appendicular skeleton?

Comprised of offshoots from the axil skeleton such as arms/legs/pelvic/pectoral guides


What are Le Fort fractures?

There are three types and all involve different sections of the facial skeleton coming separated from the main skull


How many bones make up the vertebral column?



What are the five different categories of bones in the vertebral column and how many bones are in each category?

Cervical- 7 (C1- C7)
Thoracic- 12 (T1- T12)
`Lumbar- 5(L1-L5)
Sacral- 5 (fused together)
Coccygeal- 4 (fused together, forming coccyx)


What is the distinction between primary and secondary curves of the spine?

There are 4 curve- a point outwards, 2 point inwards
Primary point out, Secondary point in


Within a vertebral body, what is the function of the vertebral arch?

To protect spinal cord formed of 2x lamina and 2x pedicle


What can emerge from an intervertebral formamen?

Spinal nerves


Where do facet joints form?

Between two articular processes of two adjacent vertebral bodies


All cervical vertebrae have ___ transverse foramina for allowing passage of ______ ______

Vertebral arteries


Why is C1 (atlas) unique?

It has no body or spinous process. Instead it has no posterior and anterior arches